Freud Family Papers

  • This material is held at
  • Reference
      GB 133 SSF
  • Dates of Creation
  • Name of Creator
  • Language of Material
      English  and German
  • Physical Description
      170 items 0.5 linear metres
  • Location
      Collection available at John Rylands Library, Deansgate

Scope and Content

The collection contains 147 pieces of correspondence between members of the Freud family, the largest part of which is between Sigmund Freud and Sam Freud. The letters are generally sent from family members in Vienna, Austria [Sigmund and Anna Freud], to family members living in Manchester [Samuel Freud and Pauline Hartwig]. The correspondence mainly covers the period between the First and Second World Wars, and contains detailed information about Sigmund Freud's living conditions in Vienna at that time. The letters are personal in content, containing news of family events and the health of Freud. There are really only a handful of letters which contain any considerable discussion of Sigmund Freud's work as a psychoanalyst, providing more emphasis on his personal life.

The collection also provides insight into what life was like to own a business in Manchester at this time, through the letters of Sam Freud, a merchant in the city.

Also included is a childhood letter from Sigmund Freud written to his half-brother, Emanuel Freud. It was written in response to a letter Sigmund received from a young Sam Freud, thus is the 'beginning' of their long-term correspondence.

The collection contains a small number of photographs of Freud family members, and some newspaper cuttings relating to Sigmund Freud.

Administrative / Biographical History

Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939, founder of psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud, son of Jacob Freud (1815-1896), wool merchant, and Amalie Nathansohn (1835-1931), was born on 6 May 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia. Both parents and Freud were Jewish. The family moved to Vienna, Austria, in 1860, where Freud stayed for most of his life. He began his medical studies at Vienna University in 1873 and became famous for founding the theory of psychoanalysis, publishing a number of works throughout his life. Arguably the most famous of these works is The Interpretation of Dreams, (1899). Freud married Martha Bernays (1861-1951) on 13 September 1886, and they went on to have 6 children: Mathilde, Jean-Martin [Martin], Oliver, Ernst, Sophie, and Anna.

He arrived in London as a refugee from the threat of Nazi persecution on 6 June 1938, where he spent the rest of his life. He died from a long-term struggle against cancer of the jaw on 23 September 1939.

Freud, Samuel, 1860-1945, merchant

Samuel [known as Sam] Freud, was born on 28 June 1860 at Broughton, Manchester, to Emanuel Freud (1833-1914) and Marie Kokach (1835/6-1923). Emanuel Freud was Sigmund Freud's half-brother, Jacob Freud's son from an earlier marriage to Sally Kanner (1831/32-1852).

During much of the time period the collection covers, Sam lived with his mother and sisters, Pauline (1856-1944) and Bertha (1859-1940) at 61 Bloom Street, Manchester. The family originally lived in Freiberg, Moravia, but must have moved to Manchester c.1859-60, as Sam was the first child of the family to be born there. Sam also had four other siblings: Johann (1855-?), Matilda (1862-1868), Emily (1865-1868) and Henrietta (12-31 Aug 1866).

It is unclear from the correspondence in which specific trade Sam held his business, but it is possible that he took over his father's business as a cloth merchant.

Freud, Anna, 1895-1982, psychoanalyst, daughter of Sigmund Freud

Anna Freud was born on 3 December 1895 in Vienna, Austria. She made a name for herself working in psychoanalysis, and acted as her father's international ambassador during his later years of illness. She died in London in 1982.

Hartwig, Pauline, 1873-1951, née Freud

Pauline Maria Freud was born on 21 October 1873 in Manchester to Philipp Freud (1834-1911), merchant, and Matilda Bloome (1839-1925). She married Frederick Oswald Hartwig, a glass manufacturer, in 1921. She died in ?Bucklow, on 23 July 1951.

Freud, Morris Herbert Walter, (1876-1938), book-keeper

Morris Freud was born on 2 April 1876 in Manchester to Philipp Freud (1834-1911), merchant, and Matilda Bloome (1839-1925). He died in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, on 21 November 1938.

Siblings of Sigmund Freud:

  • Freud, Emanuel, (1833-1914)
  • Married: Marie Kokach. Children: Johann, Pauline, Bertha, Samuel [Sam], Matilda, Emily, Henrietta.
  • Freud, Philipp, (1835-1911)
  • Married: Matilda Bloome [Bloomah]. Children: Pauline Mary [Poppy], and Morris.
  • Freud, Julius, (1857-1858)
  • Bernays, Anna (1858-1955), née Freud
  • Married: Eli Bernays [brother of Martha Bernays]. Children: Lucy, Judith, Edward, Hella, and Martha.
  • The family were based in New York, USA.
  • Graf, Regina Deborah (1860-1942), née Freud, known as Rosa
  • Married: Heinrich Graf. Children: Hermann Adolf, Caecilie [Mausi].
  • Moritz-Freud, Maria (1861-1942), née Freud, known as Mitzi
  • Married: Moritz Freud [cousin]. Children: Margarethe, Lilly Marlé-Freud, Martha Gertrude, and Theodor [Teddy].
  • Freud, Esther Adolfine (1862-1943), known as Dolphi
  • Winternitz, Pauline Regine (1864-1942), née Freud, known as Pauli
  • Married: Valentin Winternitz. Children: Rose Beatrice [Rosi]
  • Freud, Alexander Gotthold Efraim (1866-1943)
  • Married: Sophie Sabine Schreiber. Children: Harry.

Children of Sigmund Freud:

  • Hollitscher, Mathilde (1887-1978), née Freud
  • Married: Robert Hollitscher
  • Freud, Jean-Martin (1889-1967), known as Martin
  • Married: Ernestine Drucker [Esti]. Children: Anton, Sophie.
  • Freud, Oliver (1891-1969)
  • Married: Henny Fuchs. Children: Eva.
  • Freud, Ernst (1892-1970)
  • Married: Lucie Brasch. Children: Stephan, Lucian, Clement.
  • Halberstadt, Sophie (1893-1920), née Freud
  • Married: Max Halberstadt. Children: Ernst, Heinz.
  • The family lived in Hamburg, Germany.
  • Freud, Anna (1895-1982)


It is unknown how the collection was originally arranged by Sam Freud or Pauline Hartwig.

The correspondence was initally found arranged as follows, in a loosely chronological order within correspondent's files:

  • Letters from Sigmund to Sam Freud
  • Letters from Sam to Sigmund Freud
  • Letters from Anna to Sam Freud
  • Letters from Sam to Anna Freud
  • File of newspaper cuttings and photographs along with a letter from Sigmund to Emanuel Freud
  • Letters from Sigmund Freud to Pauline Hartwig, along with a letter from Morris to Matilda Freud
  • Loose items included: pamphlet by Sigmund Freud sent to Sam Freud; drawing of Sigmund Freud by Ferdinand Schmutzer; envelope containing photographs of the Freud family.

The collection's previous arrangement has been maintained to some extent, although items have now been arranged chronologically to reflect the order of sending and receiving the letters. Some items that were found separately, (e.g. some photographs or newspaper cuttings) have either been arranged alongside the letters they may have been sent with, or they have been cross-referenced.

The collection has been arranged into two sub-groups: correspondence, and photographs and newspaper cuttings. The correspondence sub-group contains six series based on correspondent, including one series created for 'Other family letters'. The photographs sub-group contains two series: one which includes a collection of photographs and newspaper cuttings which were grouped together, and the other a collection of family photographs found separately within an envelope.

  • SSF/1: Correspondence
  • SSF/1/1: Letters and related material from Sigmund to Sam Freud
  • SSF/1/2: Letters and related material from Sam to Sigmund Freud
  • SSF/1/3: Letters from Anna to Sam Freud
  • SSF/1/4: Letters from Sam to Anna Freud
  • SSF/1/5: Letters from Sigmund Freud to Pauline Hartwig
  • SSF/1/6: Other family letters
  • SSF/2: Photographs and newspaper cuttings
  • SSF/2/1: Photographs and newspaper cuttings relating to Sigmund Freud and family
  • SSF/2/2: Envelope of photographs of Sigmund Freud and family

Access Information

The collection is open to any accredited reader.

The collection includes material which is subject to the Data Protection Act 1998. Under Section 33 of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA), The University of Manchester Library (UML) holds the right to process personal data for research purposes. The Data Protection (Processing of Sensitive Personal Data) Order 2000 enables the UML to process sensitive personal data for research purposes. In accordance with the DPA, UML has made every attempt to ensure that all personal and sensitive personal data has been processed fairly, lawfully and accurately. Users of the archive are expected to comply with the Data Protection Act 1998, and will be required to sign a form acknowledging that they will abide by the requirements of the Act in any further processing of the material by themselves.

Open parts of this collection, and the catalogue descriptions, may contain personal data about living individuals. Some items in this collection may be closed to public inspection in line with the requirements of the DPA. Restrictions/closures of specific items will be indicated in the catalogue.

Acquisition Information

The collection was donated to the John Rylands Library in January 1958 by Eric Arnold on behalf of the late Mr F. O. Hartwig, husband of Pauline Hartwig.

Conditions Governing Use

Photocopies and photographic copies of material in the archive can be supplied for private study purposes only, depending on the condition of the documents.

A number of items within the archive remain within copyright under the terms of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988; it is the responsibility of users to obtain the copyright holder's permission for reproduction of copyright material for purposes other than research or private study.

Prior written permission must be obtained from the Library for publication or reproduction of any material within the archive. Please contact the Head of Special Collections, John Rylands Library, 150 Deansgate, Manchester, M3 3EH.

Custodial History

The papers were originally collected by Sam Freud, although it is unclear how he came to be in possession of the letters he had not himself received. After his death, the papers were collected by his niece, Pauline Hartwig, who later requested for them to be transferred to the John Rylands Library after her own and her husband's deaths.

Related Material

The Freud Museum holds archive collections for Sigmund and Anna Freud. This includes a large number of letters, press cuttings and photographs, some of which are duplicated in this collection.

Another large collection of Sigmund Freud's papers, including correspondence, patients files, and a collection of his writings, is held at the United States Library of Congress. The Library of Congress also holds a number of other collections of papers relating to other members of Sigmund Freud's family.


Austin, Susan, 'Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939)' Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)

Gay, Peter, Freud: A Life of Our Time (London: Max Press, 2006) .

Additional Information

Material from this collection was shown in an exhibition on the occasion of a seminar on Jacques Lacan at the John Rylands Library, Deansgate, 25 February 1989.

Family Names