Letters to John Ruskin

Archive Collection

Scope and Content

The most significant part of this collection is U DP/7 comprising an original bundle of 65 letters to John Ruskin from various correspondents spanning 1863 to 1889. These include letters from his intimate friend, the American artist Esther Francis Alexander; W G Collingwood, Ruskin's friend, editor and biographer; Sidney Colvin, art and literary critic and keeper at the British Museum; Henry Schomberg Kerr, 9th marquis of Lothian; Oliver Lodge, scientist and first principal of Birmingham University; Harry Govier Seeley, the geologist and paleantologist who held the chair of geology at King's College, London; Wilfred Ward, the biographer of Cardinal Newman; Herbert Warren, president of Magdalen College, Oxford; Elizabeth Welsh, mistress of Girton College, Cambridge. U DP/7 also contains a number of letters from Ruskin's ex-students and young women including some of the students of Winnington Girls' School, Cheshire. U DP/8 is a bundle of 46 copies of letters, most of them from John Ruskin to Lazarus Fletcher at the British Museum, though two of them are copies of letters from G Collingwood to Fletcher and one is a copy of a letter from Collingwood to Ruskin. The span dates of these letters are 1882 to 1887. U DP/9 comprises five letters from 'Mich' to 'St C' (probably siblings) dated 1885 to 1887.

The rest of the collection is memorabilia. U DP/10 is a small leather document wallet of Ruskin's containing five share certificates and a prayer printed on a card. U DP/11 is an embroidered bookmark ('God Be With You...8 February 1866...J.R.') and U DP/12 is a copy of an agreement in which the ten signatories each agree to pay John Ruskin 50 pounds, dated at Sheffield 6 June 1877.

U DP/13 is a handbill for lectures on the Italian renaissance delivered by Mrs Webster; U DP/14 comprises notes by Ruskin from a translation of a life of Michael Angelo and U DP/15 is an invitation to a coming of age party held for Siegfried, the son of Professor Hubert von Herkomer (1849-1914) addressed to the Severn family (Herkomer was nominated Ruskin's successor to the Slade professorship of fine art and the Severns were Ruskin's cousins whom he lived with at Brantwood - there is a letter from Joan Severn to Lazarus Fletcher in U DP/8).

Administrative / Biographical History

John Ruskin was born in 1819 and was educated by his mother, Margaret Ruskin (nee Cox) (b.1781), and then at Oxford, where his mother lived for the duration of his undergraduate days. His father, John James Ruskin (b.1785), was a wine merchant with an intense interest in art and literature, one that passed to his son. Ruskin had an upbringing that was as restrictive as it was broadening; his mother was deeply religious and puritanical, yet his parents loved travel and he spent each summer travelling around England and Europe. As a consequence he spent the rest of his life both working prodigiously and seeking romance in the physical environment. He continued to live with his parents through his adulthood and there is a sense in which he never grew up. His attitudes towards women were immature and his marriage to Euphemia ('Effie') Chalmers Gray in 1848 ended in disaster; it was annulled in 1855 on the grounds of non-consummation and she married their mutual friend, John Millais, in a small cloud of scandal. Ruskin's later biographers, W G Collingwood and Edward Cook, played down the question of sexual inadequacy on Ruskin's part, but in 1947 Effie's grandson, William James, published a series of letters designed to defend the reputation of his grandmother and place the blame for the marriage breakdown on Ruskin: 'The Order of Release: the story of John Ruskin, Effie Gray and John Everitt Millais told for the first time in their unpublished letters'. Mary Lutyens also published a number of letters relating to the affair in 'Effie in Venice' (1965) and 'Millais and the Ruskins' (1967).

Ruskin was an enormously influential cultural critic; his importance lies in the way he defined rather than reflected the Victorian moment. He shot to success with his book Modern Painters published in 1843; although the motivation for this book was a defence of Turner, he went on to write several volumes which fully laid out his aesthetic philosophy of art. Ruskin went through several stages of literary interest. His final volume of Modern Painters was published in 1860, but in the late 1840s he turned his attention to architecture and 'The Seven Lamps of Architecture' came out in 1848 encouraging and establishing the Victorian passion for the Gothic. In the late 1850s he shifted direction again, becoming very interested in political economy and eventually falling out with J S Mill as a result. His work emphasised duty and the moral economy and he later tried to put some of his practical plans into action by supporting model schools and setting up the St George's Guild, a moral cooperative guild of companions in labour. Letters from Violet Scott in U DP8 are about her request to be accepted into this guild.

Ruskin spent the years 1855 to 1870 lecturing in all parts of the country and in all kinds of institutions. Two of his best known series of lectures from this period are Sesame and lilies (1865) and The ethics of the dust (1866) (both in Works, vol. 18). The latter came out of a series of lectures given at Winnington Hall Girls' School in Cheshire and Ruskin's friendships with these girls is well documented in published correspondence (see below). Hull University Archives holds one unpublished letter from Agatha Tyndale in U DP7. On 10 December 1867 she wrote about a play they had staged in which '...we had a scene in a garden, and all the flowers represented by little girls, in wreaths of the flower they personified...' It is clear from this that after Ruskin's visit to the school the teacher continued to put Ruskin's ideas into the educational activity of her pupils. In Sesame and lilies Ruskin had represented women as flowers in a garden. Ruskin's reply to this letter is in The Winnington letters: John Ruskin's correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the children at Winnington Hall (1969). Agatha was Ruskin's favourite pupil: on 8 May 1868 he wrote to his mother 'It is highly satisfactory to my general notions of propriety that for once the prettiest girl in the school is also the most amiable' (The Winnington letters, p.617).

In 'The Ethics of the Dust' Ruskin constructed his lessons around crystals. Agatha's letter in U DP7 thanks him for the agates he has sent. Mineralogy was Ruskin's abiding interest from childhood and he spent a lot of time in the natural history section of the British Museum. He presented to the Museum the 'Colenso Diamond' and the 'Edwardes Ruby'. U DP8 is a collection of copies of letters between Ruskin and his friend, Lazarus Fletcher, mineralogist at the museum, and one of them explains how these stones were originally named. Between 1882 and about 1884 they were corresponding frequently about a catalogue of specimens they were jointly writing and by the end of 1886 Ruskin was talking about publishing a book summing up his lifetime's hobby called 'Recreations in mineralogy'. Some of the last letters of the collection, written in 1887, sadly record their disputes about the Colenso Diamond and the Edwardes Ruby.

These letters were written in the final years of Ruskin's life and one of them records that 'this last illness has been a heavy warning to me; and I suppose my British Museum days are over'. In 1884 he had resigned his professorship in fine arts at Oxford (endowed by Felix Slade) after holding this post since 1870. During that fourteen years he had worked ceaselessly, producing publications of his lectures and and monthly editions of Fors Clavigera, an organ for social reform aimed at working class men. His father had died in 1864 leaving a considerable fortune which he spent on supporting hundreds of pensioners and in 1885 he left his last house, Brantwood at Coniston in the Lake District, and its valuable contents, to his cousins, Arthur and Joan Severn on the condition that they make it open to the public. His mother had also died in 1871 and he had quickly become very dependent on the Severns as living companions. One of their descendants, Joseph Arthur Palliser Severn, went on to write a memoir of 'the professor', as Ruskin was always known to his students, followers and many friends (The professor: memoir of John Ruskin, 1967).

During this last decade of his life, Ruskin was often ill and irascible. He fell out with friends, like Lazarus Fletcher, and with institutions like the National Gallery, as a letter to Fletcher dated 26 December 1887 indicates (U DP8). However, throughout his long career he had acted as 'patron' in every sense of that word to schoolchildren, art students, aspiring artists and whole art movements. This side of Ruskin was as much in evidence in the 1880s as his ill humour. It was during this period that he met Esther Francis Alexander (1837-1917). Alexander was an American woman leading a closeted life with her parents (much like Ruskin's own) in Florence and attending the evangelical Christian church there. She used the nom de plume 'Sorella' when writing to him. Her mother wrote to him as 'Mammina' and letters in U DP7 are enlightening about these pet names and how they originated. Alexander was an artist and Ruskin lectured on her drawings and introduced and edited her Roadside songs of Tuscany. The intimacy of these letters is fascinating (for example, there is a letter from 'Mammina' about breastfeeding) and says much about Ruskin's ambiguous relationships with women. John Ruskin died on 20 January 1900 and is buried in the churchyard at Coniston, surrounded by his loved hills of the Lake District.

Conditions Governing Access

Access will be granted to any accredited reader

Custodial History

Purchased from T Thorp, 149 High St., Guildford, 12 October 1936

Related Material

U DX/2

Other repositories:

Ruskin Galleries, Bembridge, Isle of Wight

John Rylands Library, Manchester

Cumbria Record Office

British Library

Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Ruskin Gallery Collection of the Guild of St George, Sheffield

Bodleian Library

Trinity College, Cambridge

Ruskin Library, University of Lancaster

Bibliography

  • Bradley, John Lewis (ed.), The letters of John Ruskin to Lord and Lady Mount-Temple (1964)
  • Bradley, John Lewis, & Ousby, Ian (eds), The correspondence of John Ruskin and Charles Eliot Norton (1987)
  • Bradley, John Lewis, Ruskin's letters from Venice 1841-1852 (1978)
  • Collingwood, William Gersham, The art teaching of John Ruskin (1891)
  • Collingwood, William Gersham, The life of John Ruskin (1893)
  • Collingwood, William Gersham (ed.), The poems of John Ruskin (1891)
  • Cook, Edward T, The life of John Ruskin, 2 vols (1912)
  • Cook, Edward T & Wedderburn, Alexander (eds), The works of John Ruskin, 39 vols (1903-1912)
  • Dictionary of National Biography
  • Evans, Joan & Whitehouse, John Howard (eds), The diaries of John Ruskin (1956)
  • Fellows, Jay, The failing distance: the autobiographical impulse in John Ruskin (1975)
  • Fors Clavigera: letters to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain, 4 vols (1906)
  • The gulf of years: letters from John Ruskin to Kathleen Olando (1978)
  • Hewison, Robert, John Ruskin: the argument of the eye (1976)
  • Hilton, Tim, John Ruskin: the early years, 1819-1859 (1985)
  • Hunt, J D & Holland, F M (eds), The Ruskin polygon: essays on the imagination of John Ruskin (1982)
  • James, William (ed.), The Order of Release: the story of John Ruskin, Effie Gray and John Everitt Millais told for the first time in their unpublished letters (1947)
  • Lutyens, Mary, Effie in Venice (1965)
  • Lutyens, Mary, Millais and the Ruskins (1967)
  • Quennell, Peter, John Ruskin: the portrait of a prophet (1949)
  • Reynard, Keith W (ed.), The ASLIB directory of literary and historical collections in the United Kingdom (1993)
  • Rosenberg, John D, The darkening glass: a portrait of Ruskin's genius (1961)
  • Ruskin, John, Praeterita: the autobiography of John Ruskin (1949; written in the mid 1880s)
  • Selected writings, Penguin (1992)
  • Selected writings, Everyman's Classic Library (rep. 1995)
  • Severn, Joseph Arthur Palliser, The professor: memoir of John Ruskin (1967)
  • Sherburne, James, John Ruskin, on the ambiguities of abundance (1972)
  • The Ruskin family letters, 2 vols (1973)
  • Vitjoen, Helen Gill (ed.), The Brantwood diary of John Ruskin (1971)
  • Wilson, Clive (ed.), My dearest Dora: letters to Dora Livesey, her family and friends 1860-1900
  • The Winnington letters: John Ruskin's correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the children at Winnington Hall (1969)