The collection comprises of material relating to three polar expeditions, the British Whaling Exploration, 1892-1893 (Sometimes called the Dundee Whaling Expedition) to Antarctic waters, the Jackson-Harmsworth Arctic Expedition, 1894-1897 (leader Frederick George Jackson) and the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-1904 (led by Bruce), papers relating to the Scottish Spitsbergen Syndicate and a large quantity of correspondence.
William Speirs Bruce collection
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- ReferenceGB 15 William Speirs Bruce
- Dates of Creation1892 - 1919
- Name of Creator
- Language of MaterialEnglish.
- Physical DescriptionExpedition material ( 1 map, 1 sketch, 3 volumes, 7 leaves), correspondence (Circa 331 leaves), company papers (1 box)
Scope and Content
Administrative / Biographical History
William Speirs Bruce was born in London of Scottish parents in 1867. He was educated at Norfolk County School, England and enrolled as a medical student at the University of Edinburgh, where renowned Scottish physicists, chemists and oceanographers supervised him. In 1892, he was recommended for the post of surgeon and naturalist on board Balaena during the British Whaling Exploration (Dundee), 1892-1893. The expedition was organized to investigate the commercial possibilities of whaling in the Antarctic, although no right whales were successfully caught. The expedition did, however, fire Bruce with an ambition to pursue further polar studies.
Between 1895 and 1896, Bruce worked at the meteorological observatory on Ben Nevis. In 1897 he joined the Jackson-Harmsworth Arctic Expedition, 1894-1897 (leader Frederick George Jackson) to Franz Josef Land as naturalist. After the expedition, he continued his work at the Ben Nevis station, later joining private expeditions to Novaya Zemlya and Svalbard.
Despite considerable financial problems, he organized and led the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-1904. The expedition conducted the first oceanographic exploration of the Weddell Sea and discovered Coats Land. Bruce also surveyed Laurie Island in the South Orkney Islands, where a meteorological station (Omond House) was established in 1903. The station has provided the longest continuous record of observations in the Antarctic region, its operation being entrusted to Argentina in 1904.
On his return he became director of the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory, a post that enabled him to complete and publish the reports of the expedition. Between 1906 and 1919, Bruce returned to Svalbard on a variety of scientific projects, yet despite many successes in the region, he was unable to raise funds for another Antarctic expedition. He received many scientific awards for his polar research, including the gold medal of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and the patron's medal of the Royal Geographical Society. However, after the closure of the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory in 1919 due to lack of financial support, Bruce's health started to deteriorate. He died in Edinburgh on 28 October 1921.
Published works The log of the Scotia expedition, 1902-1904 edited by Peter Speak, Edinburgh University Press (1992) SPRI Library Shelf (7)91(08)[1902-1904]
The collection is split into six sub-fonds, covering three expeditions, the Scottish Spitsbergen Syndicate, correspondence with Robert Neal Rudmose Brown and general correspondence.
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The term holograph is used when the item is wholly in the handwriting of the author. The term autograph is used when the author signs the item.
Descriptions compiled by N. Boneham, Assistant Archivist with assistance of R. Stancombe and reference to 'William Speirs Bruce, Scottish Nationalist and Polar Explorer' by P Speak in The Polar Record, (October 1992) volume 28 number 167 p285-292 and Encyclopaedia of Antarctica and the Southern Oceans ed. Bernard Stonehouse, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2002) ISBN 0471986658 SPRI Library (7) and Robert Keith Headland Antarctic Chronology, unpublished corrected revision of Chronological list of Antarctic expeditions and related historical events, (1 December 2001) Cambridge University Press (1989) ISBN 0521309034 and Clive Holland Arctic, exploration and development C 500 BC to 1915, an encyclopaedia Garland Publishing, London (1994) ISBN number 0824076486
Other Finding Aids
Clive Holland Manuscripts in the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, England - a catalogue, Garland Publishing New York and London (1982) ISBN 0824093941.
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