Butter, H. M.

Scope and Content

Summary in English of a book on the V.V.S plot of 1915-1916 by H. M. Butter 'Tsangambaton' ny V.V.S' by G. Raveloson and Ramanantsirava [Memorial of the V.V.S], 1973.

Administrative / Biographical History

V.V.S - Vy Vato Sakelika (Iron and Stone)

"Nationalist sentiment against French colonial rule emerged among a small group of Merina intellectuals who had been educated by Europeans and exposed to Western intellectual thought. The group, based in Antananarivo, was led by a Malagasy Protestant clergyman, Pastor Ravelojoana, who was especially inspired by the Japanese model of modernization. A secret society dedicated to affirming Malagasy cultural identity was formed in 1913, calling itself Iron and Stone Ramification (Vy Vato Sakelika – VVS). Although the VVS was brutally suppressed, its actions eventually led French authorities to provide the Malagasy with their first representative voice in government" [SOURCE: Wikipedia, 10/10/2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Madagascar].

Access Information


Related Material

Publication: The Malagasy Republic : Madagascar today / Virginia Thompson and Richard Adloff (1965) [SOAS Library classmark references: WY300 /701209; or WYM 3C.41/667571; or WY300 /193646]