Summary in English of a book on the V.V.S plot of 1915-1916 by H. M. Butter 'Tsangambaton' ny V.V.S' by G. Raveloson and Ramanantsirava [Memorial of the V.V.S], 1973.
Butter, H. M.
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- ReferenceGB 102 PP MS 63/02/026
- Former ReferenceGB 102 E1
- Dates of Creation1973
- Language of MaterialEnglish Malagasy
Scope and Content
Administrative / Biographical History
V.V.S - Vy Vato Sakelika (Iron and Stone)
"Nationalist sentiment against French colonial rule emerged among a small group of Merina intellectuals who had been educated by Europeans and exposed to Western intellectual thought. The group, based in Antananarivo, was led by a Malagasy Protestant clergyman, Pastor Ravelojoana, who was especially inspired by the Japanese model of modernization. A secret society dedicated to affirming Malagasy cultural identity was formed in 1913, calling itself Iron and Stone Ramification (Vy Vato Sakelika – VVS). Although the VVS was brutally suppressed, its actions eventually led French authorities to provide the Malagasy with their first representative voice in government" [SOURCE: Wikipedia, 10/10/2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Madagascar].