The Rothschild Archive London was established in 1978 under the direction of Victor, 3rd Lord Rothschild (1910-1990). The first Archivist was appointed in 1978 when the first systematic cataloguing of the records began. In 1999, the entire contents of the Archive were brought together under the administration of a newly established body of Trustees, making the Archive an independent charitable trust.
The business records of N M Rothschild & Sons Limited represent the core of the archive. Since 1978, the archive has expanded substantially to include not only the records of N M Rothschild & Sons Limited, but also the records of a number of different branches of the family business in England, France and Austria in papers transferred from Frankfurt, Paris, Vienna and Moscow. The collection also includes personal and estate papers of the Rothschild family reflecting the family history and their many and diverse interests.