Lucy Etheldred Broadwood, youngest of the nine children of Henry Fowler and Juliana Broadwood, was born on 9 August 1858 in the family's holiday home, The Pavilion, Melrose, Scotland. Her father, Henry Fowler, was a partner in and effectively head of the family firm, John Broadwood & Sons, piano manufacturers, of Great Pulteney Street, Soho, London. Her childhood was divided between the family's country home, Lyne, Capel, Surrey, their London town house in Bryanston Square, Marylebone, and later 52 St George's Square, Pimlico. This set a pattern that continued throughout her life.
In 1899, following her mother's death, Lucy moved into 84 Carlisle Mansions, Carlisle Place, Westminster, with her niece, Barbara Craster. When Barbara moved to Wimbledon in 1920, Lucy moved to 20 Queensberry Place, Kensington; then, in 1923, to 41 Drayton Court, Chelsea. She died on 22 August 1929 at Dropmore, Canterbury, Kent, where she had gone to attend a festival.
Lucy Broadwood possessed extensive cultural interests but her main concern was for music. The composer and folk song collector, Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958) described her as possessing a wide knowledge of literature and painting, and a great talent for music, as well as being an excellent pianist and most artistic singer (2297/5). Mary Venables, a friend, referred to her intellectual powers and artistic capacity as singer, pianist, writer and folk song and folklore expert, and praised 'the helping hand she was always willing to give to many young artists' (2297/6).
Lucy was actively involved in London musical life. In her diaries, she described the musical evenings which she held at home in great detail (6782/- passim). Dermod O'Brien, for example, wrote to thank her in 1901 for her hospitality and pleasant parties, 'to say nothing of the education one gets in things musical at your flat' (2185/LEB/1/88). She helped young musicians obtain engagements such as the baritone, James Campbell McInnes (1873-1945) and the composers Percy Grainger (1882-1961) and Graham Peel (1878-1937). The pianist, CA Lidgey, also in 1901, stated that 'some fifteen engagements are to be traced directly and indirectly to yourself' (-/1/58). She arranged or wrote accompaniments to songs, one of which, 'Jess Macpharlane' an old Scottish air, enjoyed much success in the early 1890s (-/1/12).
Lucy Broadwood's main claim to lasting fame is her work in developing the study of folk music. In 1915, Lucy wrote that her earliest musical memory was of sitting on her father's knee whilst he sang her the Scottish folk song, 'the wee little croodin' doo' (Journal of the Folk Song Society, no.19). Although her father did collect songs, the MSS of some of which are held by the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, London, it is her uncle, the Rev John Broadwood (1798-1864), who is now regarded as the first pioneer of English folk song.
In 1847, John published 'Old English Songs', a collection of songs of Sussex and Surrey sung in the neighbourhood of Lyne that was noted for its fidelity in transcribing the songs exactly as performed (manuscript drafts and printer's proofs, 2185/197/15-18, and published version, 2185/LEB/4/8). The collection was reissued in 1889 as 'Sussex Songs' with the tunes reharmonised by HF Birch Reynardson and with additional songs collected by Lucy Broadwood (-/5/65).
Already sensitive to folk song, in the early 1890s Lucy began collecting specimens from different parts of England. In 1893, in collaboration with JA Fuller Maitland, she published a collection under the title 'English County Songs' which, according to Vaughan Williams, was the 'starting point of the modern folk song movement' (quote, 2297/5; Lucy's annotated copy of 'English County Songs', 2185/LEB/5/118; and proofs, -/4/131)
The following years saw the publication of the Rev Sabine Baring Gould's 'Songs and Ballads of the West' (1889-91) and Frank Kidson's 'Traditional Tunes' (1891). In 1898 the Folk Song Society was established to collect and publish 'Folk Songs, Ballads and Tunes' and Lucy was one of the founder members. Although it aimed 'to save something primitive and genuine from extinction', the Society was initially, in Ralph Vaughan Williams' words, of the 'dilettante and tea party order'. Lucy wrote a humorous poem describing the Society at this time, entitled 'On WBS leaving the Committee of the Folk Song Society' (2185/LEB/10/87). By 1904, the Society itself was at the point of extinction (2297/5).
On 6 February 1904, Lucy met with the composer, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Cecil Sharp, a London music teacher who had come to folk song through his interest in traditional English dance tunes. Her diary records that they 'discussed [the] Folk Song Society and made a scheme for reviving its dying embers' (6782/18). Sharp and Vaughan Williams were elected members and Lucy became Secretary and editor of the Society's Journal, retaining the latter post until 1926. The emphasis moved from dry academic debate to the active collection and dissemination of folk song and the Society took off.
Important issues of the Journal include a number composed entirely of examples from Lucy's own collection of songs from Sussex and Surrey (no.4, 1902); Miss Tolmie's collection of Gaelic Songs, (no 16, 1911); and a further collection of songs from Surrey and Sussex collected by Lucy, George Butterworth and Francis Jekyll (no.20, 1916). (Journal of the Folk Song Society, nos 1-11 and 14-22, 2185/). Lucy also published a second collection, English Traditional Songs & Carols, in 1908 (for her annotated copies, see 2185/LEB/5/66 & 119)
It is clear from her correspondence and from the comments of Vaughan Williams that Lucy came to disapprove of Cecil Sharp: 'he puffed and boomed and shoved and ousted, and used the Press to advertise himself' (2297/9). When he founded the English Folk Dance Society in 1911 she did not give it her support. She handed over the editorship of the Journal to Frank Howes in 1926 but continued to contribute material. She remained a member of the committee and when Lord Tennyson died in 1928 she was elected president.
Mary Venables, describing aspects of Lucy's personality, commented on 'the sincere and whole hearted satisfaction' which Lucy felt at having adhered to spinsterhood in spite of 'many pressing opportunities of quitting it', and also her great ability in all writing games and in making comical drawings and delightful sketches and rhymes. But another side of her character was reflected in her interest in spiritualism and the interpretation of dreams; and in her serious verses which 'came from the depths of her nature which often appeared to be struggling against sadness and pessimism.' Moreover Mary wrote that Lucy 'dreaded the development of modern science, abominated the sound of aeroplanes and hated to look up at them' (2297/6).
The following is a biographical index to Lucy's correspondents and other key figures.
Albery, William: Saddler & harness maker, historian and folk song collector of Horsham. Helped Henry Burstow, folk singer, to write his autobiography; sent Lucy a parcel of broadside ballads (2185/LEB/2/100-184)
Alma-Tadema, Lady Laura (née Laura Theresa Epps) (1852-1909): Painter and student of Sir Laurence Alma Tadema whom she later married. She worked occasionally as an illustrator, contributing to the English Illustrated Magazine. Their daughter, Anna, also became an artist.
Alma-Tadema, Sir Laurence (alias Laurens or Lorens) (1836-1912): Dutch-born artist; married 2nd wife, Laura Epps in 1871; moved to London, 1870; became naturalised British citizen in 1873; knighted 1899. Their daughter, Anna, was also an artist.
Austen-Leigh, Willy: Great nephew of Jane Austen, author
Backer Gröndahl, Agathe (1847-1907): Pianist and composer
Balfour, Gerald William (2nd Earl of Balfour) (1853–1945): Politician; younger brother of Arthur Balfour (1848-1930), Prime Minister, 1902-1905; MP for Leeds, 1885-1906; private secretary to his brother, 1885-1886; Chief Secretary for Ireland, 1895-1900; and President of Board of Trade, 1900-1905. He succeeded his brother to the Earldom in 1930.
Barclay Squire, William (1855-1927): Music scholar and critic; contemporary of JA Fuller Maitland; founder committee member of Folk Song Society
Baring Gould, Rev Sabine (1834-1924): Collector of folk song and lore; novelist, poet and historian; collected with the Revs F Bussell and H Fleetwood Sheppard
Beer, Mrs. Frederick: Founder committee member of the Folk Song Society
Benson, Lionel: Conductor and musical director of the Magpie Madrigal Society (1880s-?)
Binyon, Laurence (1869-1943):Lancaster-born poet and authority on Oriental Art. Worked in British Museum's Department of Printed Books, 1893-1898; Department of Prints & Drawings, from 1898, of which he eventually became Keeper. Wrote For The Fallen in 1914.
Bispham, David (1857-1921): American baritone. London debut, 1891, in Messanger's La Basoche; sang in US premiere of Ethel Smyth's Der Wald.
Bone, Gertrude (1876-?) (née Dodd): Author; married Muirhead Bone in 1903
Bone, Sir Muirhead (1876 – 1953): Artist; studied architecture and art at the Glasgow School of Art; specialised in etching and drypoint engraving, particularly of architectural subjects. Married Gertrude Dodd in 1903. Served as an official artist during both World Wars; knighted in 1937.
Borwick, Leonard (1868-1925): London-born concert pianist; studied under Mme Schumann, 1883-89
Brahms, Johannes (1833-1897): Composer; died in Vienna.
Broadwood, Bertha Marion (1846-1933): Lucy Broadwood's sister; founder of cottage hospital movement; director of John Broadwood & Sons; managed Lyne estate after death of her brother, James Henry Tschudi (1911)
Broadwood, Evelyn Henry Tschudi (1889-1975): Lucy Broadwood's nephew and executor; lived at Lyne House, Capel. Director of John Broadwood & Sons.
Broadwood, Henry Fowler (1811-1893): Lucy Broadwood's father; married Juliana Maria (née Birch) in 1840; director of John Broadwood & Sons; inherited Lyne House, Capel, from his half-brother, Rev John Broadwood, in 1864
Broadwood, Juliana Maria (née Birch) (1816-1898): Lucy Broadwood's mother; daughter of the Rev Wyrley Birch, of Wretham, Norfolk; married Henry Fowler Broadwood in 1840. Her sister, Elizabeth, married Henry's close friend, Robert Pryor, in 1844. She was a descendant of the Cust, Holland and Reynardson families.
Broadwood, Leopold Alfred Tschudi (1890-1980): Lucy Broadwood's nephew and executor
Broadwood, Rev John (1798-1864): Lucy Broadwood's uncle; folk song collector; inherited Lyne House, Capel in 1851
Burne-Jones, Lady G: Wife of Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Pre-Raphaelite artist
Burstow, Henry: Singer, folk song collector and bellringer of Horsham; with William Albery, wrote Reminiscences of Horsham, 1911, which lists over 400 songs which Burstow could sing from memory.
Butt, Dame Clara (Ellen) (1872-1936): English contralto; studied at Royal College of Music from 1890, and made her debut in 1892. Married the baritone R Kennerley Rumford in 1900; both regularly performed English ballads. Elgar wrote his Sea Pictures (1899) for her, and she became strongly identified with his Land of Hope and Glory; made a DBE in 1920.
Butterworth, George, MC (1885-1916): English composer, folk song and dance collector; friend of Vaughan Williams; killed in action at the Somme, 1 Jul 1916.
Chappell, Arthur (?-1904): Music publisher and concert organiser
Clarke, Sir Ernest: Founder committee member of the Folk Song Society
Clifford, Edward (1844-1907): Painter of portraits and biblical scenes; exhibited at Royal Academy from 1867; member of and officer in Church Army
Clodd, Edward (1840-1930): English banker, anthropologist, evolutionist, anti-spiritualist and agnostic. Author of Tom Tit Tot: An Essay on Savage Philosophy in Folk-Tale (1898) and Animism: The Seed of Religion (1905)
Coleridge, Mary Elizabeth (1861-1907): Poet; several of her poems set to music by Parry, Stanford and Quilter. Great grand neice of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
Connell, Horatio (1876-?): Baritone and singing teacher at the Julliard and Peabody Schools of Music, USA
Craster, Barbara: Lucy Broadwood's niece; daughter of Edmund Craster by 1st marriage to Katherine Margaret (eldest dau. of Henry Fowler Broadwood); half-sister to Herbert Craster; served as VAD in France, 1914-1916, and in WRNS, 1917-1919
Craster, Sir (Herbert Henry) Edmund (1879-1959): Historian and librarian; DLitt, 1916; Keeper of the Bodleian Library, 1931-1945; author of History of the Bodleian Library, 1845–1945, 1952. Lucy Broadwood's nephew; half-brother to Barbara Craster
D'Urfey (Durfey), Thomas (1653 - 1723): Prolific dramatist and song-writer; famous for satires such as The Richmond Heiress (1693) and his ballads, Wit and Mirth, or Pills to Purge Melancholy (6 vols, 1720-21). Adopted the apostrophe to his name in 1693.
Dannreuther, Edward (1844-1905): Concert pianist of German origin; settled in London after his début, 1863; close friend of Wagner; founded the Wagner Society in London, 1872; promoted chamber concerts in his home, 1874-1893; contributor to Grove's Dictionary of Musicians
Davies, Fanny (1861-1934): Student of Reinecke and Clara Schumann; London debut, 1885; specialized in Brahms, Beethoven, Schumann, also English virginal music
Dearmer, Dr Percy (1867-1937): Took holy orders in 1890; vicar of St. Mary the Virgin, Primrose Hill, London, 1901-1915; served in Serbia, France and India, 1915-1918; professor of ecclesiastical art at King's College, London, from 1919; canon of Westminster Abbey, 1931-1937. Publications include: The English Liturgy (general editor, 1903), The English Hymnal (1906), The English Carol Book (1913, 1919), Songs of Praise (1925), and the Oxford Book of Carols (1928). He made liberal use of folk melody.
Derenburg, Ilona (née Eibenschütz) (1872?-1967): Hungarian pianist; studied in Vienna and Frankfurt; married Carl Derenburg (d.1927), 1902
Dohnanyi, Ernst van (1877-1960): Hungarian composer, conductor and pianist. Emigrated to Florida, USA, 1947.
Dolmetsch, Arnold (1858-1940): Musician and musical craftsman; pioneer of revival of interest in performing using 'authentic' instruments
Du Maurier, George (1834-1898): Cartoonist and author of the novel and play Trilby, which features the evil Svengali. Father of actor-manager, Gerald, and grandfather of novelist, Daphne.
Duncan, Rev James B (1848-1917): Scottish folk song collector; worked with Gavin Greig
Elwes, Gervase (1866-1921): English tenor; lived at the Manor House, Brigg, Lincolnshire.
English Folk Dance & Song Society (1932-present): Established by the merger of the Folk Song Society and the English Folk Dance Society
English Folk Dance Society (1911-1932): Established by Cecil Sharp in 1911; merged with Folk Song Society in 1932 to form English Folk Dance & Song Society
Farrer, Katherine Euphemia (née Wedgwood) (1839-1931): From 1899, lived at Idle Rocks, Stone, Staffordshire; 2nd wife of Lord Thomas Henry Farrer, 1873
Farrer, Lord Thomas Cecil, 2nd Baron Farrer of Abinger (1859-1940): Preseident of Society of Genealogists from 1922; lived at Abinger Hall; 1st son by 1st wife of Lord Thomas Henry Farrer; married (1) Evelyn Mary Spring-Rice (d.1898), 1892 (2) Evangeline Knox, 1903; inherited title in 1899
Farrer, Lord Thomas Henry, 1st Baron Farrer of Abinger (1819-1899): Barrister; cr. Baronet, 1883, and baron, 1893; lived at Abinger Hall; married (1) Frances Erskine, 1854, and (2) Katherine Euphemia Wedgwood, 1873
Folk Song Society, 1898-1932: Established on 16 Jun 1898 'for the preservation and publication of folk-songs and melodies'. Merged with the English Folk Dance Society (estab 1911) in 1932 to form the English Folk Dance & Song Society.
Folville, Juliet: Pianist and composer of Atala
Forbes-Robertson, Sir Johnston (1853 - 1937): English actor, best known as Romeo, Macbeth, Othello, and Hamlet, whom he played in an early silent film, 1913
Fortescue Brickdale, Eleanor RWS (1871/2-1945): Oil and watercolour painter, designer of stained glass, and book illustrator
Frazer, Sir JG (1854–1941): Scottish anthropologist and author of The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (1890); knighted 1914
Freeman, A Martin: Collector of Irish folk song and lore. Some of his folksongs were published in Folk Song Society Journal, 1920-1921.
Frere, Walter Howard (1863-1938): Writer on plainsong, liturgy and the Russian Orthodox Church; Superior of the Community of the Resurrection, Mirfield, West Yorks, 1902-1913, 1916-1922 ; Bishop of Truro, 1923-1935
Fuller-Maitland, JA (John Alexander or 'JAFM'), (1856-1936): Music critic of The Times, 1889-1911; writer on musical matters; founder committee member of the Folk Song Society; studied under WS Rockstro; editor of and contributor to Grove's Dictionary of Musicians; distant relation by marriage.
Gardiner, Henry Balfour (1877 - 1950): British composer and folk song collector (partic. in Hants); composed Shepherd Fennel's Dance (after Thomas Hardy); became noted promoter of performances of music by other British composers. Also collected with George Gardiner (no relation).
Gatty, Nicholas Comyn (1874-1946): Yorkshire born composer and musical journalist. His first opera, Greysteel, premiered in Sheffield in 1906.
Gilchrist, Annie G (1863-1954): Folk song collector particularly specialising in early psalm and hymn tunes and music of Lancashire and NE England; on Editorial board of Folk Song Society, 1906-1954; OBE, 1948.
Gill, WH: Founder committee member of the Folk Song Society
Gleichen, Countess Valda (Victoria) von (1868-1951): Born in London. Married Percy Wilfred Machell (KIA, 1916), 5 Dec 1905, and styled Lady Valda Machell.
Gomme, Lady Alice Bertha (née Merck) (1852-1938): Authority on folklore, particularly children's games. Founder committee member of the Folk Lore Society and Folk Song Society. Became Lady Gomme in 1911.
Gomme, Sir (George) Laurence (1853-1916): Founder of the Folk Lore Society and historian of London; author of The Handbook of Folklore (1890); in 1875, married Alice Bertha Merck. Gomme was knighted in 1911.
Grainger, Percy Aldridge (1882-1961): Australian pianist, folk song collector and composer; friend of Grieg and Delius; lived in London, 1900-1915, and thereafter in the USA; pioneered use of phonograph to collect folksong. His mother, Rose (1862-1922), exerted a strong influence over his life and career.
Graves, Alfred Perceval (1846-1931): Irish poet and founder committee member of the Folk Song Society. Publications include: Songs of Old Ireland, co-edited with Stanford (1882); Irish Songs and Ballads, co-edited with Stanford (1893); The Irish Song-Book (1897); Songs of Erin, with Charles Wood (1901). Father of novelist, poet and classicist, Robert Graves.
Greig, Gavin (1856-1914): Scottish preacher and folk song collector and poet; native of Aberdeen; wrote a weekly column for the Buchan Observer. Working with the Rev James B Duncan, collected c.3000 Scottish folksongs which were published posthumously as Last Leaves of Traditional Ballads and Ballad Airs (editor, Alexander Keith, Buchan Press, 1925). Distantly related to Edvard Grieg, whose ancestor changed the spelling of the family name. Greig & Duncan's MSS are held at School of Scottish Studies, Edinburgh University
Grieg, Edvard (1843-1907): Norwegian composer; interested in folk song; distant relation of Gavin Greig
Gypsy Lore Society: An 'international association of persons interested in Gypsy and Traveller Studies', founded in 1888 by David MacRitchie. Society defunct, 1893-1907, revived by Scott Macfie and Dora Yates. Dissolved in 1974 and revived in the USA in 1989. The society's pre-1974 records and journals are held by the University of Liverpool
Hadow, William Henry (1859-1937): Music scholar and contributor to Grove's Dictionary of Musicians; wrote particularly on Croatian music, Schumann and Haydn. Fellow of Worcester College, Oxford.
Hale, Alfred Matthew (1876-1960): Composer and musician. Conscripted in 1916 and served in the Royal Flying Corps. Wrote The Ordeal of Alfred M Hale: the memoirs of a soldier servant, ed. Paul Fussell (London, 1975). Original TS held at Imperial War Museum.
Hallé, Charles (1819-1895): Pianist and conductor
Hassall, John, 1868-1948: Book illustrator; trained in Paris, fl. from 1895 onwards, illustrating books, magazines, theatre and commercial posters
Heller, Stephen (1813-1888): Hungarian-born composer, particularly for piano; and pianist
Henschel, Lillian June (née Bailey) (1860–1901): American soprano; she made her debut in Boston in 1876, then studied (1878) with Viardot-Garcia in Paris and later with George Henschel, whom she married in 1881
Henschel, Sir George (1850-1934): German-English conductor, composer, and baritone; debut as singer in England, 1877; Boston Symphony Orchestra's first conductor, 1881-1884; returned to England, 1884; professor of singing at the Royal College of Music, London, 1886-1888; founder and conductor of the London Symphony Concerts, 1886-1897; knighted in 1914.
Herkomer, Sir Hubert, RA (1849-1914): Bavarian-born social-realist artist, portraitist and engraver; came to England in 1857; interested in early film-making, theatre design and direction; in 1883, founded a school of art at Bushey, Herts, and was its Director until 1904.
Herschell, Lord, (1837-1899): Founder President of the Folk Song Society; barrister; Lord Chancellor, 1892-1895
Hess, Myra (1890-1965): Pianist; famous for her morale-boosting concerts at the National Gallery during the Second World War
Hipkins, AJ (1826-1903): Employee of John Broadwood & Sons; specialist and collector of ancient musical instruments; with Dolmetsch, a pioneer of the 'authentic' music movement; contributor to Grove's Dictionary
Holst, Gustav (von) (1874-1934): Composer and folk song collector; close friend of Vaughan Williams; most famous for The Planets Suite
Howes, Frank (1891-1974): Editor of the Folk Song Society Journal, 1926-?; music critic for The Times; his folk song papers are now held at the Music Faculty Library, University of Oxford
Hyde, Douglas (1860-1949): Gaelic revivalist, poet and first President of Ireland, 1938-1945
Jacomb-Hood, George Percy, RBA RE (1857-1929): Painter and illustrator, particularly of mythological scenes and contemporary genre; worked mainly for the Graphic; born in Redhill, Surrey
Jacques, E F: Founder committee member of the Folk Song Society
Janotha, Natalie (1856–1932): Polish concert pianist
Joachim, Joseph (1831-1907): Concert violinist, teacher and conductor; protégé of Mendelssohn's; formed a close working relationship with Johannes Brahms. Generally regarded as one of the finest violinists of his generation.
Joyce, PW (1827-1914): Irish historian, folklorist and song collector; publications include Ancient Irish Music (1873), Irish Music and Songs (1888), Old Irish Folk Music and Songs (1909) and A Social History of Ancient Ireland (1913)
Kalisch, A (1863-1933): Musical journalist; promoted music of Richard Strauss; Hon. Treasurer of the Folk Song Society (1898-?)
Karpeles, Maud (1885-1976): Folk song collector and assistant to Cecil Sharp
Keel, Frederick (1871-1954): English baritone and composer of songs. Interned at Rühleben camp in Germany, 1914-1918
Keith, Alexander (b.1895): Journalist and folk song collector from Aberdeen. Following deaths of Greig and Duncan, Keith, with William Walker, saw into print the publication of a portion of Greig and Duncan's collection of North Eastern Scottish Folk Song: Last Leaves of Traditional Ballads and Ballad Airs Collected in Aberdeenshire by the late Gavin Greig (1925). His papers relating to the ballad collections are held by the Special Libraries and Archives Collction, Aberdeen University.
Kennedy Scott, Charles (b.1876): Conductor of the Oriana Madrigal Choir and the Philharmonic Choir
Kennerley, R. Rumford (1870-1957): English baritone; married Clara Butt, 1900, and often gave joint recitals with her; served in the British Military Intelligence Department during World War I.
Kidson, Frank (1855-1926): Leeds-born, self-taught music scholar and authority on early English music and folk song. His speciality was popular music, particularly the songs, ballad operas, dancers and publishers of the 18th century in England. He did not collect songs 'in the field' as Vaughan Williams did, preferring instead to use published sources. Founder committee member of the Folk Song Society. Contributor to Grove's Dictionary of music and musicians. Most significant publications: Old English Dances (1890); Traditional Tunes (1891); British music publishers, printers and engravers (1900). Many of his papers held at the Mitchell Library, Glasgow; some material also at Vaughan Williams Memorial Library.
Leather, Ella: Collector of folk song, dance and lore from Herefordshire and Welsh Marches; some of her papers are held amongst the Lucy Broadwood MSS at the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library
Lee, Miss Kate: Honorary Secretary of the Folk Song Society, 1898-1904; folk song collector
Lehmann, Liza (Elizabetta Nina Mary Frederica Lehmann) (1862-1918): English composer and soprano; successful career as concert singer (début London), 1885-1894; studied composition with Hamish McCunn and Herbert Bedford. Works include: In a Persian Garden; Rubaiyát of Omar Khayyám (London, 1896). Married Herbert Bedford (1867-1945), in 1894.
Leighton, Sir Frederick, Baron Leighton of Stretton (1830-1896): Pre-Raphaelite painter
Leith Hill Musical Festival (1905-present): Founded by Evangeline Farrer, wife of Lord Thomas Cecil Farrer, and Margaret Vaughan Williams in 1905; founder committee members included Margaret's brother, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Lucy Broadwood
Lidgey, Charles A: Pianist and solicitor; regularly accompanied Lucy and James Campbell MacInnes
Lucas, EV (Edward Verrall) (1868–1938): British journalist, biographer and essayist.
MacCunn, Hamish (1868-1916): Scottish composer, conductor and teacher; trained at the Royal College of Music; professor at the Royal Academy of Music; tutor of Liza Lehmann.
Macfarren, Lady: Most probably Lady Clara Natalia Macfarren (1827-1916), widow of Sir GA Macfarren (1813-1887), who was Principal of the Royal Academy of Music. She was renowned as a translator of German and Italian song, particularly Wagner.
Macfarren, Prof. Walter Cecil (1826-1905): Composer, critic and professor of piano, Royal Academy of Music, 1846-1903; married Julia Fanner (d.1902), 1852
Macfie, (Robert Andrew) Scott (1868-1935): Expert on Roma/Gypsies and their language, dialect, folk-tales and songs; revived the Gypsy Lore Society in 1907; co-Editor of the Gypsy Lore Society Journal, 1907-1914, 1932-1935. His MSS are held by the University of Liverpool
Mackail, John William (1859–1945): Classicist, writer on William Morris; Fellow of Royal Academy, 1914; Oxford University Professor of Poetry; married Edward Burne-Jones' daughter, Margaret; father of author Angela Thirkell
Mackenzie, Sir Alexander C (1847-1935): Scottish composer and Principal of the Royal Academy of Music; first president of the Folk Song Society
Maclean, Kate [alias McLean, McClean, MacClean]: Native of Arisaig, Inverness, from whom Lucy collected many Gaelic folk songs in 1906 and 1907. Lucy also collected songs from Kate's father, 'Old Mr Maclean'.
Magpie Madrigal Society: Estab. mid 1880s as The Magpie Minstrels, renamed in 1896; by mid 1880s regarded as one of the most important unaccompanied choirs in Britain. Repertoire chosen by Lionel Benson, Parry and Barclay Squire: mainly taken from 16th/17th cents, published as Arion: A Collection of Madrigals, Glees and Part-Songs (1899); also promoted contemporary works written by, among others, Parry, Stanford, CH Lloyd, Alan Gray, Eaton Faning, George Henschel, Jacques Blumenthal, Charles Wood, Vaughan Williams, Maude Valerie White and Arthur Somervell.
McInnes, James Campbell (1873-1945): Lancashire born baritone, regarded during the early 1900s as England's 'favourite concert baritone'. A protégé of Lucy Broadwood's, he sang in the premières of several of Vaughan Williams' works. He was a regular visitor and introduced the composer Graham Peel to Lucy's circle in 1903. He and Peel lived together until, in 1911, after a six-week courtship, McInnes married Angela Mackail (see Thirkell and Mackail). Angela divorced him in 1917 on grounds of cruelty and remarried in 1918. McInnes served in the Royal Flying Corps for the remainder of the war and emigrated to Canada in 1919. He became a Professor of English at Toronto University and organised a series of concerts and lectures known as the 'Tuesday Nine O'Clocks'. He was responsible for introducing much contemporary English music to the Canadian music scene. Their two surviving sons, Graham McInnes and Colin MacInnes [sic], were also novelists.
Merrick, W Percy: Braille linguist and folk song collector from Shepperton
Metcalfe, Susan: American soprano; married to cellist, Pablo Casals, 1914-1928
Morrison, Arthur (1863–1945): English novelist and journalist for National Observer. Wrote detective fiction and about folk lore and social issues. Lived at Salcombe House, Loughton, Essex
Murray, Miss MA (Margaret Alice) (1863-1963): Reader of Egyptology at University College, London; author of The Witch Cult in Western Europe, 1921; president of the Folklore Society, 1953-1955
O'Neill, Norman (1875-1934): Composer and conductor, chiefly for the theatre, particularly, the Haymarket. He studied with Arthur Somervell at the Hoch Academy, Frankfurt (alongside Percy Grainger, Roger Quilter and Balfour Gardiner); married pianist and teacher, Adine Ruckert, (1875-1947). O'Neill taught harmony and composition at the Royal Academy; regular broadcaster in radio's early days; Hon Treasurer of the Royal Philharmonic Society, 1918-1934.
Osborne, George Alexander (1806-1893): Irish pianist and composer; friend of Berlioz and Chopin
Pachmann, Madame Marguerite de (née Maggie Oakey) (b.1864): Australian-born pianist; came to London in 1870s and studied at Royal College of Music; in 1883, became student and, 1884, wife of Russian concert pianist, Vladimir de Pachmann (1848-1933); marriage eventually dissolved
Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (1860-1941): Polish concert pianist and composer; launched his career in 1885.
Parratt, Sir Walter (1841-1924): Organist of Magdalen College, Oxford and St. George's Chapel, Windsor (c.1882-1924); Professor of Music at Oxford (1908-18), Dean of the Faculty of Music of London University (1916-20) and Professor of the Royal College of Music; Master of the Royal Music (1893-1924); knighted in 1892. Also writer and composer of religious and secular music.
Parry, Charles Hubert Hastings (1848-1918): Composer, music scholar, founder Vice-President of the Folk Song Society. Began teaching at the Royal College of Music in 1883; Director, 1894-1918; Professor of Music at Oxford University, 1900-1908
Pauer, Ernst (1826-1905): Pianist, composer and professor of music.
Peel, Graham (1878-1937): Composer, folk song collector and social worker; companion of James Campbell McInnes.
Playford, John (1623-1686): Music publisher trading at Temple Church, London. Most famous for publishing The English Dancing Master, or Plaine & easie Rules for the Dancing of Country Dances, better known as Playford's Dancing Master
Playford's Dancing Master (originally known as The English Dancing Master): First book of English social dances, published by John Playford in 1651; contained the steps and tunes for 105 English dances, based on both traditional and popular music of the day. From 2nd edn in 1657, known solely as The Dancing Master. The series ran to 18 edns of the 1st volume (1651–1728), 4 of a 2nd (1710–1728), and 2 of a 3rd (1719?–1726?). All 3 vols encompass 1,053 dances and tunes, including 186 tunes without dances and 3 songs.
Plunket Greene, Harry (1865-1936): Dublin-born concert bass baritone. Pre-eminent as a interpreter of English song by such as Parry, Stanford, Elgar and Vaughan Williams
Pollock, Sir Frederick (1845-1937): Barrister and law writer; called to the bar in 1871
Prout, Ebenezer (1835-1909): Organist, musical scholar
Quiller Couch, Arthur (1863–1944) (alias Q): English academic and author; editor of many anthologies, including the Oxford Book of English Verse (1900) and the Oxford Book of English Prose (1923). Knighted in 1910
Quilter, Roger (1877–1953): Sussex-born composer of songs and pieces for piano; promoted by Gervase Elwes. Contemporary of Grainger, and Balfour Gardiner at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt.
Ravogli, Giulia: Operatic contralto; famed for her portrayal of 'Orfeo' and 'Carmen'
Reynardson, Herbert F Birch: Lucy's cousin; co-editor with her of Sussex Songs (1889)
Ritchie, Lady Richmond (née Annie Thackeray) (1837-1919): Proto-feminist author; eldest daughter of William Makepeace Thackeray; her sister married Leslie Stephen in 1867; author of A Book Of Sibyls: Mrs. Barbauld, Miss Edgeworth, Mrs. Opie, Miss Austen (1883); in 1877, married her cousin, Richmond Ritchie, 17 years her junior.
Ritchie, Sir Richmond, Thackeray Willoughby (1854-1912): Career diplomat; entered India Office, 1877, and held sucession of positions, culminating in Permanent Under Secretary of State, India Office, 1910-1912. Married Anne Thackeray, 1877; knighted 1907.
Rockstro (formerly Rackstraw), William Smyth (1823-1895): Music historian and critic; contributor to Grove's Dictionary of Music & Musicians; gave Lucy Broadwood singing lessons, 1891 (see her diary, 6782/7-8)
Rogers, JP (1823-1895): Founder committee member of the Folk Song Society
Salaman, Charles (1814-1901): Composer of English and Jewish choral music; pianist
Santley, Sir Charles (1834-1922): English baritone singer; made his debut in Haydn's Creation in 1857; from 1862, devoted himself to Italian operas
Sapellnikov, Vassili (1868-1941): 19th century concert pianist; later teacher
Schreyer, Johannes: German music historian and Bach scholar
Schroeder, Leopold von (1851-1920): Medievalist and Grail historian; worked closely with Jessie Weston
Schumann, Eugenie (1851-1938): Daughter and biographer of the pianists and composers, Robert and Clara Schumann
Shakespeare, William (1849-1931):Singer, pianist, teacher, composer; gave Lucy Broadwood singing lessons, 1891 (see her diary, 6782/7-8)
Sharp, Cecil (1859-1924): Folk song and dance collector; member of Folk Song Society from 1904; founder of English Folk Dance Society in 1911; collected Appalachian folksongs, c.1916-1918. Publications include: Folk Songs From Somerset, with CL Marson; Songs Of The West, with S Baring Gould; English Folk Songs For Schools, with S Baring Gould; English Folk Carols; English Folk Chanterys; English Folksongs From The Southern Appalachian Mountains, edited by Maud Karpeles. Biographies: Cecil Sharp, AH Fox Strangeways with Maud Karpeles; Cecil Sharp-His Life And Work, Maud Karpeles
Sims Reeves, John (1818-1900): English concert tenor
Somervell, Sir Arthur (1863-1937): Composer; Professor of Harmony and Composition at the Royal College of Music, 1893-1901; Inspector of Music to the Board of Education. His works include Highland Concerto, The Passion of Christ, Maud, The Shropshire Lad
Spring-Rice, Cecil (1859-1918): Ambassador to America, 1912-1918; Wrote words for 'I Vow to Thee My Country' (music by Gustav Holst (1874-1934))
Spring-Rice, Thomas Aubrey, 3rd Baron Monteagle (1883-1934): 2nd son of Thomas Spring-Rice, 2nd Baron; cr. Baron, 1926. Died unmarried and without issue
Stainer, Sir John (1840-1901): Composer; Organist of St Paul's Cathedral, London; Founder President of the Folk Song Society
Stanford, Sir Charles Villiers (1852-1924): Composer, music scholar; professor of composition at the Royal College of Music, 1883-1923, and Professor of Music at Cambridge, 1887; notable students were Vaughan Williams, Holst, George Butterworth, Arthur Bliss, and Grainger. Founder Vice-President of the Folk Song Society.
Stavenhagen, Bernhard (1862-1914): Pianist and student of Lizst
Stirling, Fanny: Actress; part of Ben Webster's company at the St James' Theatre, London, in 1863; coaxed out of retirement to play the nurse opposite Ellen Terry's 'Juliet' in Henry Irving's production of Romeo & Juliet at the Lyceum, London, 1882
Straus, Ludwig (1835-1899): Eminent concert violinist of the late 19th cent
Strauss, Richard (1864-1949): German composer and conductor
Sumner, Heywood (George Heywood Maunoir Sumner) (1853-1940): Illustrator, painter and wood engraver; leading figure in the Arts & Crafts Movement; designed arts & crafts wallpapers, tapestries and other textiles, metal furniture and stained glass; also interested in archaeology. Married Agnes Benson, 1883; lived at Cuckoo Hill, Fordingbridge, Hants, from 1904
Tennyson, Lord Hallam (also known as Arthur) (1852-1928): Son of Lord Alfred Tennyson, poet; Governor of Australia, 1899-1902, 1st Governor-General, 1902-1904; President of the Folk Song Society, 1904-1928
Thirkell, Angela (1890-1961): Novelist, particularly of the 'Barsetshire chronicles'; married (1) James Cambell McInnes, 1911, divorced, 1917, and (2) Australian soldier, George Lancelot Thirkell, 1918; emigrated to Australia, 1920; in 1929, left Thirkell and her children from 1st marriage, and returned, with son from 2nd marriage, to live with her parents, the Mackails, in London.
Todhunter, Dr: Founder committee member of the Folk Song Society
Tolmie, Frances (d.1926): Scottish folk song collector; lived in the Hebrides
Vaughan Williams, Ralph (1872-1958): Composer and folk song collector; student of Parry, Stanford and Ravel; musical editor of English Hymnal (1903); co-founder and conductor of the Leith Hill Musical Festival, 1904-1953; served in Royal Army Medical Corps, 1914-1916, and Royal Garrison Artillery, 1916-1919; worked with EM Forster on Abinger Pageant, 1934; author of National Music and other Essays (1934); long-time friend of Lucy Broadwood, Gustav Holst and George Butterworth. Major vocal works include Five Mystical Songs, Folk Song Suite and Pilgrim's Progress. His papers are now held by the British Library.
Verne, Mathilde (1865-1936): English concert pianist and teacher; herself a pupil of Clara Schumann.
Wakefield, Miss (Augusta) Mary (1853-1910): Founder of the Wakefield Competition and Festival at her home at Sedgewick, Cumbria, 1885, transferred to Kendal, 1886. With Lady Mary Trefusis founded the Association of Competition Festivals in 1904.
Walker, Ernest (1870-1949): Director of music at Balliol College, Oxford, 1901-1925
Walthew, Richard Henry (1872-1951): Composer and musical director of the Passmore Edwards Settlements, 1900-1904
Ward, Mrs Humphrey (Mary, née Arnold) (1851-1920): Author and journalist
Warlich (alias Wahrlich), Reinhold von (1879-1939): German singer
Wedgwood, Frances Julia (1833-1913): Sister to Katherine Euphemia Farrer; granddaughter of Josiah Wedgwood
Wedgwood, Godfrey (1833-1905): Master potter to the Queen and great grandson of Josiah Wedgwood; married Hope Wedgwood, 1876; died at Idle Rocks, Stone, Staffs
Wedgwood, Hope Elizabeth (1844-1935): Sister of Katherine Euphemia Farrer and Frances Julia Wedgwood; 2nd wife of Godfrey Wedgwood (cousin), 1876