Wingate, General Sir Reginald

  • This material is held at
  • Reference
      GB 33 SAD[480]
  • Dates of Creation
      ca.1876-1957
  • Language of Material
      English
  • Physical Description
      200 boxes

Scope and Content

Papers relating to Wingate's Egyptian Army career, 1883-1899

Letters, telegrams, reports, maps etc. covering Wingate's service in the Egyptian Army during the Nile campaigns, firstly as Staff Officer to Sir EvelynWood (from 1884) and then as Assistant Military Secretary to Sir Francis Grenfell (from 1886), Assistant Adjutant General Recruiting (also 1886), Assistant Adjutant General Intelligence (from 1887) and finally as Director of Military Intelligence(from 1889). Papers from 1883-1885 are chiefly concerned with the movement of men and supplies in support of the Anglo-Egyptian force. From 1889 the papers increase in volume and cover Wingate's intelligence gathering activities in the FrontierDistrict; the campaign against al-Najūmī and the Battle at Tushki (1889); arrangements for the escape of European prisoners held at Omdurman; the “frontier incident” of 1894; Wingate's brief service as Governor of the Red Sea Littoral and Commandantof Suakin in 1894; and the final advance towards Omdurman culminating in the Battle of the Atbara (April 1898), the Battle of Omdurman (September 1898) and the Fashoda incident (September 1898). Although chiefly related to affairs in the Sudan,there are numerous references to Emin Pasha and Stanley and affairs in Abyssinia, Uganda, Egypt and Somaliland.

Papers relating to Wingate's Sudan career, 1899-1916

Papers covering the short period of Kitchener's Governor-Generalship and the death of the Khalīfah, 1899; and Wingate's service as Governor-General of the Sudanand Sirdār of the Egyptian Army from 1899-1916. The papers reflect all aspects of the government and development of the Sudan, both civil and military. Each file consists chiefly of correspondence to and from Wingate but filed with the letters arereports, memoranda, maps, newspaper cuttings etc., most of which are itemised in the catalogue of the Wingate Papers. Among the subjects covered are the following: the capture of `Uthmān Diqnah (1900); the rebuilding of Khartoum; the development ofa civil administration, both in Khartoum and the provinces; the control of missionary work; the establishment of Gordon College; tribal disturbances and punitive patrols; securing of frontiers, particularly between the Sudan and Abyssinia;encouragement and control of commercial investment in the Sudan; the promotion of tourism; investment in railways, roads and bridges; control of archaeological expeditions; delimitation of national boundaries (see also section 1e.); development oftrade and agriculture; negotiations with the Sudan Plantations Syndicate and the development of the Gezira; public health; the opening of the Nile-Red Sea railway, 1906; relations between Cairo and Khartoum and the takeover of the Lado Enclave;repercussions of the First World War; and the 1916 campaign against `Alī Dīnār. There are numerous references to affairs in Sinai, Somaliland, Abyssinia, Uganda and Yemen.

Irrigation

Papers relating to irrigation in the Sudan and Egypt. These include correspondence, telegrams and reports on Dongola Province basin cultivation, the Gezira irrigation scheme, cotton growing at Tokar, andNile control. These topics are also covered in more general terms in the sections containing material from Wingate's career in the Sudan and Egypt.

The Darfur Campaign, 1916

Papers relating to the military campaign against `Alī Dīnār, last Sultan of Darfur, including correspondence, reports etc. on deteriorating relations between the Sultan and the SudanGovernment, transport and communications problems facing the convoy, the capture of El Fasher and death of `Alī Dīnār in November 1916

Boundary Commissions

Papers relating to the delimitation of national boundaries: Mahagi strip boundary by a joint Sudan/Belgian Congo Commission, 1910-1914; proposed commission to delimit the Sudan frontier with theBelgian Congo, Uganda and Abyssinia, 1912-1914; Sudan/Belgian Congo boundary, 1913-1914. For further papers on boundaries see the section containing material from Wingate's Sudan career for the Sudan/Uganda boundary and section on Abyssinian Affairsfor the Abyssinian boundary.

Papers relating to Wingate's career in Egypt, 1917-1919

Papers concerning Egyptian affairs from 1913 and more particularly Wingate's High Commissionership, 1916-1919. The papers cover all aspects of Egyptianadministration. In addition there is a great deal of material on the progress of the war in the Middle East and of the Arab revolt, the crisis of 1919 and the Milner Commission.

Egyptian Sultanate

Papers relating to the Egyptian Sultanate, consisting chiefly of correspondence between Wingate and the Khedive `Abbās Ḥilmī (1900-1914) and between Wingate and the Sultan Ḥusayn Kāmil(1914-1917), and papers concerning the activities of `Abbās Ḥilmī after his abdication and the death of Ḥusayn Kāmil.

Arab Affairs

Papers relating to affairs in the Arabian Peninsula, 1907-1920 including reports on the Hijāz Railway (1907-1909), repercussions of the outbreak of war on the Arabian Peninsula, the progress of the Arabrevolt in great detail and peace negotiations after 1918

Abyssinian Affairs

Papers relating to affairs in Abyssinia, 1897-1899 including the British Mission to the court of King Menelik, 1897 and correspondence, reports, etc. concerning frontier delimitation (see alsosection on Boundary Commissions), operations against frontier tribes, the Tsana Commission, Italian involvement in Abyssinia and political developments

Aden Affairs

Papers relating to affairs in Aden, including supply of arms to the Idrīsī, military activities in Aden during the First World War and trade

Sanūsīyah Affairs

Papers relating to Sanūsīyah affairs, including reports on Siwa and Jaghbub, 1889-1892 and letters and telegrams concerning the boundaries of the villayet of Tripoli, jurisdiction over Kufra Oasis,relations between the Sanūsī and the Egyptian and Turkish Governments, military developments on the western frontier of Egypt, (1915-1916) and Anglo-Italian negotiations with the Sanūsī (1916-1918)

Somaliland Affairs

Papers relating to affairs in Somaliland, including British policy in Somaliland, Special Mission to Somaliland, headed by Wingate (1909), military actions and exploitation of minerals

Ecclesiastical Affairs

Papers relating to ecclesiastical affairs in the Sudan and Egypt, including mission schools in the Sudan and the Roman Catholic Church in Egypt

Personal Papers

Chiefly correspondence of a more personal nature, but includes letters to and from serving officials and therefore many official matters are covered, particularly the crisis in Egypt in 1919 . There are detailed letters from Wingate to his wife during the campaign in the Nile valley, 1889  and describing his experiences at Omdurman and Fashoda, 1898. There is also aseparate series of correspondence between Wingate and Slatin, 1913-1936.

Diaries

Personal diaries of Wingate containing a mixture of private and official news: Bombay, 1881; Aden, 1882; Bombay, 1883-1884; Battle of Abu Klea and the fall of Khartoum, 1884-1885; Wingate as Staff Officer toWood, 1885-1886; inspection tour to Aswan, 1888; Khedive's visit to the frontier, 1894; battle of Omdurman and Fashoda incident, 1898; expedition against the Khalīfah, 1899; inspection tour of Mongalla Province and the Lado Enclave, 1902; inspectiontours of the White and Upper Nile areas, 1903

Articles, Lectures and Speeches

Draft articles, lectures and speeches by Wingate and others covering such topics as the history of Gordon College, the Gordon relief expedition, history of the Egyptian Army, thesieges of Sennar, history and geography of Suakin, the military revolt of the 4th Sudanese battalion (1865), the planning of Khartoum and Omdurman, notes on the history of the Transport Corps, the Nuba Territorials and the Arab Battalion, etc.

Manuscripts of Published Works

Manuscript and typescript drafts of a number of publications including Fire and sword in the Sudan by R. Slatin (1895), Mahdiismand the Egyptian Sudan by Wingate (1891), Ten years captivity in the Mahdi's camp by Wingate (from the notes of Fr. Ohrwalder) (1892); manuscript of Father Rossignoli's account of his captivity in Omdurman(later published as I miei dodici anni di prignonia in mezzo ai Dervisci del Sudan); Equatoria, the Lado Enclave by C.H. Stigand; and miscellaneous notes intended for use in a projectedautobiography by Wingate

Photographic Material

Albums, loose photographs and postcards covering Wingate's service in the Sudan as well as Abyssinia (1897), Egypt (ca. 1900), Somaliland (1909), Arabia (1916), Lake Tsana (1916), the Hijāz(1917) and Palestine (1917)

Maps and Plans

Chiefly of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, but including sketch maps from the Nile campaigns and maps of Egypt, Hijāz, Asia Minor, Uganda, Sinai, Syria, Cyrenaica, Palestine, Trans-Jordan, Turkey andYemen

Newspaper Cuttings

Loose and bound press cuttings, chiefly concerned with events in the Sudan and Egypt

Printed Material

Includes many government and army publications

Administrative / Biographical History

Governor-General of the Sudan, 1900-1916 , High Commissioner for Egypt, 1916-1919

Conditions Governing Access

Open for consultation.

Acquisition Information

Presented by Sir Ronald Wingate, 1962-1964

Note

Part of : Sudan Archive

Other Finding Aids

Conditions Governing Use

Permission to make any published use of material from the collection must be sought in advance from the Sub-Librarian, Special Collections (e-mail PG.Library@durham.ac.uk) and, where appropriate, from the copyright owner. The Library will assist where possible with identifying copyright owners, but responsibility for ensuring copyright clearance rests with the user of the material.

Bibliography

Daly, M.W., The Sirdar: Sir Reginald Wingate and the British Empire in the Middle East, (Philadelphia, 1997)

Subjects