Until the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, relief of the poor was the responsibility of the parish. Following the Act, parishes were grouped into Unions which were charged to provide a workhouse for the relief of the able-bodied poor. Llanrwst Poor Law Union was formed in 1837; its operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians, representing its constituent parishes: Eglwysbach, Gwernhywel, Gwytherin, Llanddoged, Llangernyw, Llanrwst, Pentrefoelas, Tir Ifan, and Tre-brys, in Denbighshire, and Betws-y-Coed, Dolwyddelan, Eidda, Gwydir, Llanrhychwyn, Maenan, Penmachno, and Trefriw, in Caernarfonshire.
The Board of Guardians responsible for the Union had other duties, including the registration of births, marriages and deaths, vaccinations, assessments of rates, sanitation, school attendance and infant life protection. By the time of the Local Government Act 1929, Unions were abolished and their duties transferred to County Councils, responsibility for the poor being transferred to the Public Assistance Committee until 1948. Llanrwst Rural Sanitary Authority was established in 1872 to provide water and sewage services; in 1894 its functions were transferred to Llanrwst Rural District Council.
This collection includes: minute books, correspondence, financial records, staff records and records of the Llanrwst Rural Sanitary Authority.