Josephine Butler [to her sons]

Scope and Content

Copy of letter. Written from Florence.

Has been trying to understand Italian politics. 'Crispi is the only man who is strong enough [to form a Ministry]'. (See letter dated 12 Dec 1893, Josephine Butler to Miss Priestman).

At the moment it is only the Radicals who care about the Cause but they must work to get support; there does not seem much hope from the Vatican Party. She explains the ties between the Vatican and the Parliament. Thinks she could make an appeal which the Pope might consider. The formalities of a papal audience are physically impossible to her as she cannot now kneel. She is seeing Pere Rousseau, head of a French order and esteemed by the Pope. She can only work slowly and quietly; they must not expect her to do any great things.

'A monk called Aicardi called lately on Edith [Josephine's niece] and Aunt Hatty [Josephine's sister] at Genoa'.

Administrative / Biographical History

Edith was a daughter of Josephine Butler's eldest sister Eliza by Dr Morrison. She married Ludwig Leupold, a Swiss and settled in Genoa. Aunt Hatty was Mme Meuricoffre, a sister of Josephine Butler's, who had houses at Naples and on the Lake of Geneva.

Biog: Crispi, Tommasi-Crudeli, Dr Comandi,

Aicardi (monk)