Josephine Butler to Albert Rutson

Scope and Content

Typed fragment of letter. Written from 'Home'. Explains her bitterness in her last letter about Oxford - not about the woman question in reference to Oxford but about the tests and foolish fighting against admission of dissenters [It was not till the Tests Act of 1871 that all religious tests were abolished at Oxford and Cambridge.]

Administrative / Biographical History

'I was ... thinking ... of the tests, and the foolish fighting against the admission of dissenters' - In the Reforms of 1858 it was enacted that no religious test should be imposed at matriculation or on taking a bachelor's degree; though candidates for the MA degree and persons elected to fellowships were still required to swear to things against the conscience of dissenters

The Tests Act of 1871 abolished all religious tests thus opening College fellowships and academic posts generally to men of all varieties of religious profession

'our memorial to Oxford' - A petition for the higher education of women

See note about presenting a Memorial to the Senate of Cambridge on the same question: JB's letter of Jun 1868 addressed to 'Dear ladies'