Photographs from the William Carmichael McIntosh collection

Archive Collection

Scope and Content

The collection contains items of photography from the papers of W.C. McIntosh and relating to the other family history studies of A.E. Gunther, W.C. McIntosh's grand-nephew and biographer. It includes a number of important early photographic images from the late 1840s. These relate to the town and people of St Andrews and surrounding area and include important early images of the Castle and the Pends. There are a number of important early calotypes by Thomas Rodger and others, as well as ambrotypes, tintypes / ferrotypes and albumen prints. A large number of early carte de visite format prints are also included. This early photography also includes 2 important miniature photographic albums. The collection contains McIntosh family photography from the 1860s on visits to France, Belgium, Switzerland, Jersey and the Isle of Man.

Family photographic holdings within this collection have been further augmented from two sources within the family. As W.C. McIntosh and Agnes McIntosh outlived both their parents and all their siblings, it is likely that they inherited photographic material which is now included within the collection. Also a quantity of A E Gunther photographic material relating to the McIntosh family would appear to have been passed down through the Gunther family from his maternal grandmother, Roberta McIntosh. In addition, A E Gunther collected material relating to his broader genealogical studies and these images include portrait photographs of family members taken in Australia in the late Victorian and Edwardian period. Some of these images are original prints while some are photographed copies dating from the 1970s.

The collection contains important holdings in the following areas:

Early photographic images emanating from St Andrews, ca. 1845-1860;Early photographic images emanating from St Andrews, ca. 1845-1860;Victorian and Edwardian family photography, ca. 1860-ca. 1910;Victorian and Edwardian family photography, ca. 1860-ca. 1910;Commercially-produced Victorian and Edwardian photographic prints, ca. 1860-ca. 1910;Commercially-produced Victorian and Edwardian photographic prints, ca. 1860-ca. 1910;Early Scottish institutional Psychiatry, ca. 1860;Early Scottish institutional Psychiatry, ca. 1860;Aberdeen fishing industry, 1898.Aberdeen fishing industry, 1898.Material relating to the study of McIntosh and the history of the Gatty Marine Laboratory.

The main holdings are:

ms36344/5/1 Marine botany (Owenia filiformus), Wales, 1913;ms36344/5/1 Marine botany (Owenia filiformus), Wales, 1913;ms36344/6 Aberdeen fishing and whaling industry, 1898;ms36344/6 Aberdeen fishing and whaling industry, 1898;ms36346/3/3 Marine mammal (whale?) bones, ca. 1900;ms36346/3/3 Marine mammal (whale?) bones, ca. 1900;ms36347/2/11 Possibly psychiatry-related, ca. 1860; marine mammal (whale?) bone, ca. 1900;ms36347/2/11 Possibly psychiatry-related, ca. 1860; marine mammal (whale?) bone, ca. 1900;ms37102 Family scrapbooks: numerous images;ms37102 Family scrapbooks: numerous images;ms37103 Family photo albums: numerous images;ms37103 Family photo albums: numerous images;ms37111/3 Agnes McIntosh, birthday book- ca. 1860-ca. 1920, volume cover includes a panoramic view of St Andrews from the top of St Rule's Tower, ca. 1860.ms37111/3 Agnes McIntosh, birthday book- ca. 1860-ca. 1920, volume cover includes a panoramic view of St Andrews from the top of St Rule's Tower, ca. 1860.ms37113/9 Mounted illustrations and from Gunther's published biography of McIntosh. Some "original' prints, others reproductions, 1970s;ms37113/9 Mounted illustrations and from Gunther's published biography of McIntosh. Some "original' prints, others reproductions, 1970s;ms37114 Numerous family images. Also, North Uist, ca. 1860; and Tay Bridge, ca. 1875, Valentine image.ms37114 Numerous family images. Also, North Uist, ca. 1860; and Tay Bridge, ca. 1875, Valentine image.ms37115/1 Numerous family images;ms37115/1 Numerous family images;ms37115/2 Numerous images, mostly on glass, ca. 1860 -ca. 1865;ms37115/2 Numerous images, mostly on glass, ca. 1860 -ca. 1865;ms37118/10 Miniature photographic album, ca. 1855-ca. 1860;ms37118/10 Miniature photographic album, ca. 1855-ca. 1860;ms37119/2 Volume cover includes photographic images of Highland Scotland inlaid on both the front and back, ca. 1860;ms37119/2 Volume cover includes photographic images of Highland Scotland inlaid on both the front and back, ca. 1860;ms37119/5 Australian family images, mostly Victorian. Some "original' prints (photographer: Creelman of Sydney, New South Wales), others reproductions, dating from the 1970s; ms37119/5 Australian family images, mostly Victorian. Some "original' prints (photographer: Creelman of Sydney, New South Wales), others reproductions, dating from the 1970s; ms38340 Gatty and McIntosh history 35mm slides and various Gatty staff images, ca. 1960-ca. 1990;ms38340 Gatty and McIntosh history 35mm slides and various Gatty staff images, ca. 1960-ca. 1990;ms38501/5-6 Maurice Caullery, Professor of Zoology, University of Paris, France, portraits, 1911;ms38501/5-6 Maurice Caullery, Professor of Zoology, University of Paris, France, portraits, 1911;ms38501/13 Mounted fish specimens (probably herring), ca. 1855 - ca. 1880.

Administrative / Biographical History

William Carmichael McIntosh FRS, FRSE (1838-1931) become one of the leading marine zoologists of his generation. He started his academic career at Madras School, St Andrews around 1845, later entering the University of St Andrews at the age of 15. His life-long interest in natural history and in collecting marine creatures was already established by the time he entered Edinburgh University to study Medicine in 1857, whence he graduated in 1860. From 1860-1882 McIntosh was employed in institutional psychiatry in Perthshire. He was never to marry. His sister Roberta assisted him in many of his most important projects by providing drawings before her early death in 1868.

In 1873, British Annelids Vol. 1 'Nemertea' was published by the Ray Society; this was the first of a classic series of monographs, which would not be finally completed until 1923. McIntosh was also a pioneer of United Kingdom fisheries research, most especially in the period 1883-1896. Honours followed his many scientific achievements, including election to Fellowships of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1869 and the Royal Society of London in 1877.

From 1882 to 1917 McIntosh was Professor of Natural History at the University of St Andrews. During this period, he made a number of important contributions to the development of the University. These included the reform of Natural History teaching and the establishment of a Botanic Garden. He also played an important part in establishing a modern School of Medicine at St Andrews. Perhaps his most important contribution was the establishment of the St Andrews Fisheries Laboratory in 1884, the first dedicated facility of its kind in the British Isles. This was followed by the establishment of the world-renowned Gatty Marine Laboratory in 1896. In his later years, McIntosh made a number of important benefactions and bequests to the University.

The vast majority of photographic holdings within this collection relate to McIntosh's personal and family life. McIntosh was born into a prosperous middle-class family which had both the means and opportunity to be involved in photography from a relatively early period. The family certainly embraced formal portrait photography from the mid-1850s, while a note within the collection records McIntosh himself owning a camera in 1857 (ms37115 /2/23v).

From 1861, McIntosh's companion was his sister, Agnes McIntosh. She remained with her brother until her death in 1923. Agnes was an avid compiler of scrapbooks which chronicle her personal interests, the family and her brother's career. Dating principally from ca. 1850 to ca. 1905, these scrapbooks contain a significant amount of photographic material including much of the early material.

Conditions Governing Access

The photographic collections are currently the subject of a major digitisation project. It is the intention to have the entire archive captured in electronic form, and available (with sophisticated searching facilities) on line via the web. A full version of the software can be accessed in the Library and researchers are welcome to visit the library to use it but it is important that appointments are made in advance. Access to original photographic material may be restricted.

Acquisition Information

Items from within the ms range ms36344 - 37119, ms38501 /13: Papers of W C McIntosh gifted to the University of St Andrews by McIntosh's grand-nephew and biographer, A E Gunther, in a number of separate transfers during the 1970s.Items ms38340 (various), ms38501 /5: Papers relating to the Gatty Marine Laboratory and W C McIntosh gifted from the estate of the late Professor M S Laverack (former Director of the Gatty Marine Laboratory), 1996.

Other items within the collection are sourced from within University departments including Natural History (Biology), Chemistry and Botany.

Note

These holdings can be found within manuscript numbers ms36344 /5, ms36344 /6, ms36346 /3/3, ms36347 /2/11, ms37102, ms37103, ms37111 /3, ms37113 /9, ms37114, ms37115 /1, ms37115 /2, ms37118 /10, ms37119 /2, ms37119 /5, ms38340 /3, ms38340 /4 and ms38501.

Description compiled by Rachel Hart, Archives Hub Project Archivist, based on notes provided by Meic Pierce Owen, History of Science and Technology Project Archivist.

Other Finding Aids

The material is listed on the Departmental manuscripts database.

Conditions Governing Use

Copies of images held in the photographic collection (with the exception of any photographs which are held either without copyright or under other restrictions imposed by the donor or photographer) can be ordered. Photographs thus provided for purely personal or research purposes are not subject to any fee beyond the photographic costs (for which a scale of charges is available). Prior written permission must be obtained before any further reproduction is undertaken of images supplied, for commercial or non-commercial purposes. Reproduction fees may be charged.

True photographic reprints of most images can be provided, or computer-generated prints of an increasing proportion of the collection at low, medium or high resolution. Given the fragility of the original material our preference is to provide computer prints where possible. We can also provide transparencies and a range of electronic formats.

Appraisal Information

This material has been appraised in line with standard GB 227 procedures.

Bibliography

AE Gunther, William Carmichael McIntosh, M.D., F.R.S. (St Andrews, 1977)

Additional Information

This material is largely original.