Notes of Lectures by Henry Cline

Scope and Content

Manuscript of anatomy lectures delivered by Henry Cline (1750-1827) with ff.286-368 being blank, and writing predominantly on the recto only. The notes are written in shorthand using the Byrom system with occasional longhand words throughout. All the lectures are individually numbered from 2 to 60.

The few longhand words at the beginning of each lecture have been used to determine the subject of each lecture, which are as follows: (2) on the blood, (3) structure of arteries, (4) diseases of arteries, (5) lymphatics, (6) the cellular membrane, (7) muscles, (8) nerves, (9) glands, (10) bones, (11) appendages of the bones, (12) osteogeny, (13) osteology, (14) diseases of the spine, (15) the superior extremity, (16) bones of the fore arm, (17) bones of the metacarpus, (18) bones of the leg, (19) the cranium [skull], (20) ossa temporum [temporal bones], (21) bones of the face, (22) membranes of the brain, (23) the brain, (24) the eye and its appendages, (25) humours of the eye, (26-27) art of anatomical preparation, (28) muscles of the abdomen, (29-30) muscles of the face and neck, (31) cartilages of the larynx, (32) muscles of the neck, spine, and chest, (33) muscles of the lower back, abdomen, pelvis, and upper legs, (34) muscles of the lower leg and foot, (35) muscles of the arm, (36) ligaments, (37) teeth, (38-39) male organs of generation, (40) kidneys, (41) the penis, (42) the bladder, (43-44) hearing and the ear, (45) organs of taste, (46) organs of smelling, (47) integuments, (48) the trunk, (49-50) contents of the abdomen in situ, (51-52) female organs of generation, (53) of the liver, (54) the pancreas etc., (55) the lungs, (56) the heart, (57) coronary artery, (58-60) the arteries.

Administrative / Biographical History

Henry Cline was born in London on 25 March 1750 and began his medical education in 1767 with a seven year apprenticeship to Thomas Smith, a surgeon at St Thomas's Hospital, London. Here he had the opportunity to attend the hospital as a pupil and also on occasion stood in and lectured on behalf of Joseph Else, lecturer on anatomy. On 2 June 1774 he was admitted as a member of the Surgeons' Company and in the same year attended the lectures of John Hunter who he came to greatly admire and was a significant influence on Cline's work. When Joseph Else died in 1781 Cline took over from him as lecturer on anatomy and just three years later Thomas Smith died allowing Cline to take the role of surgeon at St Thomas's.

One of Cline's first pupils in his new position was Astley Cooper who flourished under the tutelage of Cline. In 1789 Cline invited Cooper to lecture alongisde him and the two lectured in anatomy and surgery until 1812 when Cline gave up his position as both lecturer and surgeon in favour of his son, Henry Cline junior. In 1815 Cline became the Master of the College of Surgeons and in 1823 was re-elected but by now the position had been renamed as President.

Cline also demonstrated a particularly active interest in agriculture and politics showing himself to be something of a radical. Whilst he ran a private practice alongside his hospital and teaching commitments it was said that he would have been much more successful and profitable if he had not been so distracted by politics and agriculture. His only publication was On the Form of Animals published in 1805. He died on 2 January 1827 at his home in Lincoln's Inn Fields.


Michael Bevan, 'Cline, Henry (1750-1827)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [, accessed 30 June 2016]. 'Obituary: Henry Cline. 1750-1827', British Journal of Surgery, 1918, 6(21), pp.12-14.