Thomas Cooper, MD LLD, was born in London on 22 October 1759 and studied medicine and law at Oxford. His 'democratic principles' led him to spend four months in Paris. Here he learnt a process of making chlorine from salt, and settled in Manchester as a bleacher. His liberal views were anathema to the government, and after his house was attacked he left England in 1795 with Dr Priestley. In Pennsylvania he established himself as a lawyer and died on 11 May 1839 in South Carolina.