Archive of the University of Manchester, Department of Extra-Mural Studies and Centre for Continuing Education

Archive Collection

Scope and Content

The archive comprises records of the Department of Extra-Mural Studies, its successor, the Centre for the Development of Continuing Education, the Lamb Guildhouse Association, and papers of the Manchester Regional Committee for the Education of H.M. Forces, with which the Department was closely involved during the Second World War.

The Departmental material (DEM/1) includes the administrative papers, promotional material, annual reports, as well as publications of Departmental members, cuttings books, and a photograph collection documenting Departmental activities.

DEM/2 comprises the records of the Lamb Guildhouse Association including its minutes, administrative files and cuttings books.

The records of the Manchester Regional Committee for Education in H.M. Forces (DEM/3) includes the minutes of this body, programmes of activities and a set of administrative files concerning its educational activities.

DEM/4 comprises the records of the Centre for the Development of Continuing Education, established in 1994 to continue the University's adult education work.

Note some of the digital records of the CCE have not yet been catalogued.

Administrative / Biographical History

The Department of Extra-Mural Studies of the University of Manchester had its origins in the University Extension movement of the late nineteenth century. Universities and colleges, responding to the lack of opportunity for formal higher education of many sections of the population, offered lectures and courses directly to the public outside the confines of the university. This type of education thus became known as 'extra-mural' education.

The first initiatives in this area began in the 1860s against a background of concern about current standards of secondary education. In 1867-8 James Stuart of Trinity College, Cambridge delivered lectures to working men and women in North of England. In 1873 the University of Cambridge began a formal programme of extra-mural lectures, to be followed by Oxford University in 1878. Their aim was to provide lectures and classes primarily in liberal education subjects to social groups lacking access to university education; workingmen and middle class women were seen as particularly important constituencies for extra-mural education.

Owens College became involved with University Extension in the mid-1880s. The College already provided an extensive programme of evening classes (evening students outnumbered the day students until the 1890s), but it had not been active in an extra-mural sense. In 1885 Arthur Milnes Marshall, professor of zoology at Owens College, presented a case for a series of extension lectures to the Victoria University authorities. The federal Victoria University had been created in 1880, and its constituent colleges were Owens College, University College, Liverpool, and Yorkshire College, Leeds. The University feared that extra-mural education in the North of England would be monopolised by Oxford and Cambridge, and they decided to meet this challenge with their own programme. The first "Victoria University local lectures" commenced in February 1886 with a series of lectures on natural history by Marshall at Withington, Manchester. Soon courses were being held in other parts of Manchester. In 1891, a University Extension Committee was set up with representatives from Manchester, Leeds and Liverpool, to oversee the extension programme, and declaring the aim to be "to bring the University to the people when the people cannot come to the University".

Initially the Victoria University colleges ran a modest programme of around a hundred courses per annum, considerably smaller than those of Oxford, Cambridge and London. Lectures and courses were financed by local committees, who recovered costs by charging attendance fees. Centres were established across the region to support the programme, including at Openshaw, Ancoats, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Heaton Chapel, Colne (Lancs.), Southport, Blackburn, Bolton, Bootle, Wakefield, Denby Dale, and Ormskirk. Vocational and technical courses were popular as they were more likely to attract fee-paying students (for example, Yorkshire College, Leeds ran very successful extra-mural courses in agricultural education).

By the time that the independent University of Manchester was created in 1903, the situation was more favourable to extra-mural education. The Board of Education was providing some central funding, but, most importantly, the Workers' Education Association (originally known as the Association to Promote the Higher Education of Workingmen) was established in 1903 to promote extra-mural education for working class students. The W.E.A. developed into a body which could ensure the systematic planning and organisation of extra-mural education, working in alliance with the universities. For much of the twentieth century, the relationship between the universities and the local districts of the W.E.A. lay at the heart of extra-mural education. The W.E.A. popularised an intensive version of extra-mural education known as the tutorial class, which lasted for three years, with syllabuses designed by the W.E.A. itself. Courses in economics, history and social sciences proved particularly popular in the early years. The University of Manchester began its formal association with the North West District of the W.E.A. in 1909. A Joint Committee was formed, comprising seven representatives from the University and seven from local working class organisations (including W.E.A.), to oversee tutorial classes in the local region. The relationship between the W.E.A. and the University was cemented in 1911 with the institution of an annual reception for W.E.A. students at the University.

In 1919 extra-mural education received a substantial boost when a report issued by the Adult Education Committee of the Ministry of Reconstruction described it as a "permanent national necessity" and advocated that universities form extra-mural departments. A department was established at Manchester in 1920. It was responsible for two strands of extra-mural work: the provision of tutorial and sessional classes in collaboration with the W.E.A., supervised by the Joint Committee for Tutorial Classes, and non-W.E.A. open lectures and courses in the Manchester region, supervised by the University's Extra-Mural Committee. In 1926 Henry Pilkington Turner was appointed director of the Department (he had previously been external registrar), and he worked closely with Eli Bibby, the secretary of the N.W. District of the W.E.A. Pilkington was succeeded as Director by Ross Waller (1899-1988), a University lecturer in English, during the 1936/7 academic session. Extension work prospered during the 1920s, with a greater range of tutorial classes being offered. Sessional classes, less advanced than the tutorial classes, were also popular. There were inevitable setbacks during the 1930s when the economic climate made it very difficult for many working class students to spare the time and money for such classes.

The Extra-Mural Department's role changed significantly during the Second World War, when it became involved in the education of armed services personnel (both British and Allied). The Manchester Regional Committee for the Education of H.M. Forces was established in 1940 to oversee this education programme, and the Department became intimately involved in the practical implementation of the programme. The Committee was responsible for providing thousands of classes and lectures during and after the War, its work coming to an end in 1959. Forces' education allowed for the employment of many more teaching staff, and required a variety of different teaching methods; the experience provided useful experience for post-war teaching methods at the Department. During the War the Committee acquired the use of Holly Royde, a house in Withington, south Manchester, to provide residential courses, and this was to develop into the Department's residential adult education centre in the post-war period.

The Department was able to expand its activities in the post-war period. It was recognised as a Responsible Body by the Ministry of Education which funded its non-vocational teaching with an annual grant, and this helped employ more staff within the Department. Residential staff tutors were appointed to organise extra-mural education in outlying districts including Blackburn, Burnley, Bolton, Wigan, Chorley, Bury, Rochdale, Oldham, East Cheshire and North West Derbyshire. The Department also developed a fruitful relationship with the Lamb Guildhouse Association, established in 1938 for those interested in less formal adult education. The 'Lambs' used Holly Royde as their base, and made a significant contribution to its success.

In 1948 a new Joint Committee on Adult Education replaced the Committee on Extra-Mural Work and the Joint Committee on Tutorial Classes. In 1949 the Department's Director, Ross Waller, was appointed to the chair of adult education (Adult Education was an independent department within the Faculty of Education). During the 1950s the Department broadened its teaching scope by offering in-service and specialist training courses in such areas as social work and criminology. This was a response to changes, albeit slow, in the patterns of demand for extra-mural education. On the one hand, there was a need to provide more quasi-vocational courses, often accompanied by some form of credential, while on the other hand, there was increasing demand for less formal and intensive education than was provided by the traditional tutorial class, particularly from those students, who undertook courses in their retirement. Although the tutorial classes remained important until the 1960s, participation did begin to decline in the face of competition from the polytechnics and the Open University.

In 1960 Waller was succeeded by Werner Burmeister as Director of the Department, but he remained in post for only a short period. Waller then returned temporarily as Director until the 1964/5 Session when George Wedell was appointed Director. Wedell, like Waller, was also a professor of adult education. In 1963, the Department had moved to new accommodation in the Roscoe Building, having previously resided in offices above a bank at the corner of Oxford Road and Brunswick Street. In 1972, the Department established its own Departmental Board, following the revision of the University's constitution.

The nature and funding of extra-mural education changed significantly during the 1980s. The Department suffered funding cuts, with a consequent loss of staff tutors (the number of academic staff had peaked in 1977 at 31). Financial strictures meant that fee income from courses became more important. In 1986/7 a Central Board and Office for Continuing Education took over administrative responsibility for all continuing education at the University, with the result that the Extra-Mural Department lost its responsibilities in this area. Residential courses became less important with the consequence that Holly Royde was closed in the mid-1990s.

In 1992/3 the Higher Education Funding Council decided that future funding for continuing education should be based on number of students studying for an award. The University of Manchester meanwhile concluded that a new Centre for Development of Continuing Education would replace the Extra-Mural Department and the Office for Continuing Education and Training; this would supervise all continuing education conducted under the University's auspices. This brought to an end the role of the Department's staff tutors, and, following this, the Department was abolished in July 1994.

During the 1990s and early 2000s, the Centre provided a range of courses in adult education: it continued to teach the diploma in community and youth studies, provided a range of non-assessed courses for the general public, and in 1994 introduced a new certificate in continuing education for its range of assessed courses. In 1999, the Centre was renamed the Centre for Continuing Education, and was placed within the Faculty of Arts (after 2004, the Faculty of Humanities). In 2006, a major review of the Centre saw a radical reorganisation of adult and continuing education provision; the Centre ceased to be involved with the diploma in youth studies, and the certificates in continuing education were discontinued. Public education was dispersed among various agencies within the University, usually within the context of widening participation and public engagement initiatives.

Arrangement

The archive is divided into three components, reflecting differences in provenance between the records of the Extra-Mural Department itself, and of the Lamb Guildhouse Association and the Manchester Regional Committee for Education in H.M. Forces, which had a close administrative relationship with the Department, but which nevertheless remained autonomous from it: 

  • DEM/1 - Records of the Extra-Mural Department
  • DEM/2 - Records of the Lamb Guildhouse Association
  • DEM/3 - Records of the Manchester Regional Committee for Education in H.M. Forces.
  • DEM/4 - Records of the Centre for the Development of Continuing Education/Centre for Continuing Education.

Conditions Governing Access

The collection is open to any accredited reader, although some items containing personal data may have restricted access.

The collection includes material which is subject to the Data Protection Act 1998. Under Section 33 of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA), The University of Manchester Library (UML) holds the right to process personal data for research purposes. The Data Protection (Processing of Sensitive Personal Data) Order 2000 enables the UML to process sensitive personal data for research purposes. In accordance with the DPA, UML has made every attempt to ensure that all personal and sensitive personal data has been processed fairly, lawfully and accurately. Users of the archive are expected to comply with the Data Protection Act 1998, and will be required to sign a form acknowledging that they will abide by the requirements of the Act in any further processing of the material by themselves.

Open parts of this collection, and the catalogue descriptions, may contain personal data about living individuals. Some items in this collection may be closed to public inspection in line with the requirements of the DPA. Restrictions/closures of specific items will be indicated in the catalogue

Acquisition Information

The major part of the archive was transferred to the University Archives following the reorganization of extra-mural education in 1994. Further accruals were made in 2009 and 2016.

Conditions Governing Use

Photocopies and photographic copies can be supplied for private study purposes only, depending on the condition of the documents.

A number of items within the archive remain within copyright under the terms of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988; it is the responsibility of users to obtain the copyright holder's permission for reproduction of copyright material for purposes other than research or private study.

Prior written permission must be obtained from the Library for publication or reproduction of any material within the archive. Please contact the Head of Special Collections, John Rylands University Library, 150 Deansgate, Manchester M3 3EH, tel. tel.: +44 (0)161 834 5343.

Accruals

No further accruals expected.

Related Material

The minutes of the various University committees which oversaw extra-mural education at the University form part of the main University archives . These comprise: 

  • Minutes of the University Extension Committee, later the Committee on Extra-Mural Work, 1914-1943 ( USC/37);
  • Minutes of the Joint Committee on Tutorial Classes 1915-1945 (USC/36);
  • Minutes of the Joint Committee on Adult Education 1948-1972(USC/38)
  • Board for Extra-Mural Studies Minutes, 1974-1986, BOS/3

The Vice-Chancellor's archive contains the following files relevant to the work of the Department:

  • VCA/7/4 Director of Extra Mural Studies, 1937 (relates to appointment of Waller).
  • VCA/7/136 Extra-Mural Department, 1935-1950.
  • VCA/7/143 Extra Mural Department, 1942-1969.
  • VCA/7/617 Extra Mural Department, 1967-1980.
  • VCA/7/129 Workers' Educational Association, 1938-1969.
  • VCA/7/100 Manchester Regional Committee for Adult Education in HM Forces, 1939-1957.
. Some of the post-1980 Vice-Chancellor's files on this subject area are currently uncatalogued.

The annual reports of the Department will be found in the Reports of Council to Court (UOP/2) . Staff lists etc. can also be found in the annual calendars. The archives of the Faculty of Education (FED) and Department of Adult Education (DAE) includes material relating to extra-mural education, and some of this will be of relevance to the work of the Department.

Bibliography

The following works proved of value in compiling the administrative history of the Department: Thomas Kelly, Outside the walls: sixty years of university extension at Manchester 1886-1946 (Manchester University Press 1950) , the standard history for the early period. The period 1946 until the dissolution of the Extra-Mural Department in 1994 is covered by John Smith, "Manchester University Extra-Mural Department: a short history of its development and demise" in the Department's Annual Report 1993-4. An unpublished paper by Ross Waller, former Director of the EMD, "Manchester Extra-Mural Department", February 1979 is also valuable for personalities involved with the Department (see DEM/1/7/2/21).

Thomas Kelly, A history of adult education in Great Britain (3rd edition Liverpool 1992)  surveys the subject on a national level.

Geographical Names