Deeds, manorial and estate records and miscellaneous records (C1-C293 and C565-C713) relating to the Howards' Cumberland estates, 12th-20th centuries but predominantly 18th-20th centuries.
These Cumberland estates, often known as the Naworth estate, consisted of the Barony of Gilsland, together with the other Cumberland manors and adjacent Northumberland manors of Featherstone and Thirlwall belonging to the family. There is also a little material relating to the socage of Carlisle, chiefly in the 17th and early 18th centuries. For fuller details relating to the geographical range of this section of the collection and the nature of the manorial and estate material mentioned below see the general description of the Howard of Naworth Papers under Administrative etc. history.
This material is divided into two sections, (1) deeds, and manorial and estate records and (2) miscellaneous records, and catalogued accordingly. There is a good deal of overlap between the two sections and between these records and records in other sections of the Howard Papers.
1. HNP C1-C293: deeds, and manorial and estate records relating to the Howards' Cumberland estates, 12th-20th centuries (numbers C294-C564 are not included in this deposit but see description of HNP 1982 deposit for isolated numbers between C303 and C355).
These records date from the 12th to the 20th centuries, although the bulk of the material is from the 18th-20th centuries. The majority of items in this section of the collection consist of conveyances, counterpart leases and related correspondence and papers. As well as landed properties these also concern tithes, advowsons, fisheries and woods and various industrial ventures, including collieries, lead mines and zinc metal or spelter works. There are also a certain number of enfranchisement deeds, notably in HNP C166 (for other enfranchisements see the descriptions of the HNP 1967 and 1971 supplementary deposits).
Other records include:
- Field books and surveys, notably the Lord William Howard field book of 1603 (HNP C188/1, 1A and 2; see general description of the Howard of Naworth Papers under Publication note and for the accompanying plans see section on miscellaneous papers re Cumberland below) and Edward Bowman's survey of -1832 (HNP C201/24-25; see under catalogues below for guide and accompanying plan);
- plans, notably in HNP C190 and C202 but also scattered throughout the collection;
- court books, especially HNP C178-178A, books of the court baron of the Barony of Gilsland 1576-1597 and 1611-1652 (with gaps), and court papers;
- call books, especially HNP C180-C180D, Barony of Gilsland call books 1674-1828 (with gaps; the call books for 1828-1923, also with gaps, are in the separately described series of HNP volumes), and call papers;
- papers re fines;
- legal papers and other miscellaneous papers, including some material relating to inclosures.
This section of the papers also includes a little material relating to the Dacre family, e.g. in HNP C115-C115A, and to the Howards of Corby, e.g. in HNP C179 (for more information see the general description of the Howard of Naworth Papers under Scope and content and Administrative history etc.).
The arrangement and numbering of this section of the collection was devised in the Howard estate office before the records were deposited in Durham and, as a condition of deposit, the existing system was retained (the bundle numbers being prefixed with a C to distinguish them from the Northumberland series). Unfortunately the arrangement is haphazard and disguises the true relationships between many of the documents. Although there is a certain amount of grouping by, for instance, manor or type of record, this is not consistent and related items are often separated.
2. HNP C565-C713: miscellaneous papers, books and plans relating to the Howards' Cumberland estates, 17th-20th centuries but chiefly 19th century.
This is a very miscellaneous body of material and, although some groupings can be discerned within it, its arrangement is random and related items are not always together. The main contents are described below.
Dacre and Howard political, family and household records, 16th-18th centuries
- A few original and copy documents re the Dacre family (see above), 16th-17th centuries (HNP C643- 644);
- correspondence and papers, some of it copies, re the state of the Anglo-Scottish border etc., ca.1600-1656 (HNP C644/1-13, some of it published; see general description of the Howard of Naworth Papers under Publication note - Surtees Society, 68);
- a series of household books, ca.1612-1722, with gaps in the series and the later books consisting chiefly of estate accounts (HNP C706-712, some of them published; see also Related units of description in other repositories below and general description of the Howard of Naworth Papers under Publication note - Surtees Society, 68, 168).
- Draft and copy conveyances, leases and settlements with related abstracts, schedules, papers and legal opinions, chiefly late 18th-19th centuries (especially HNP C632-641).
Various manorial and estate records and plans
- These records, which are scattered throughout this section of the Papers, include surveys and valuations, a series of early 17th-century plans of the Barony of Gilsland (HNP C713/1, 1A, 2-13; see general description of the Howard of Naworth Papers under Publication note, and for the accompanying 1603 field book see section on Cumberland estate records etc. above), other estate plans (with a block of such material in HNP C600), a set of books of reference to Ordnance Survey plans of various parts of the Cumberland and Northumberland estates (HNP C599), Barony of Gilsland court papers 1733-1743 (HNP C608), fine books and papers (e.g. HNP C611/15 and C659-C663), rentals (e.g. HNP C601-C605 and C615-C629, ca.1723-1840 with gaps) and accounts (e.g. HNP C606, bailiffs' accounts, 1757-1791 with gaps).
Records of land-agents, workmen and tradesmen
- Large quantities of correspondence, papers and accounts of various Howard land agents, chiefly 19th- century, together with legal papers, copies of Acts of Parliament (e.g. HNP C609), and accounts and papers relating to woods, fisheries, drainage, paving, fencing, hedging and estate housing, as well as extensive series of bills from workmen and tradesmen.
Records of building work and architects
- Correspondence, papers and a few plans relating to building works carried out for the Howards by various craftsmen and architects, including Anthony Salvin (1799-1881) and Philip Webb (1831-1915), chiefly at Naworth Castle and in the Brampton, Cumberland area (e.g. HNP C575 and C630). For other architectural material see description of the main series of Northumberland material among the Howard of Naworth Papers (stray items re Salvin's work at Lanercost, Cumberland, 1851, and Naworth Castle, Cumberland, 1867) and HNP 1982 supplementary accession.
Records relating to industries, transport and water supplies on the estates
- Material relating to collieries (especially HNP C645-C646, C664-C687, C692-C693, C695), lead-mining (e.g. HNP C664/2; material re lead is also scattered through other sections of the collection), quarries (e.g. HNP C694), the lime industry (e.g. HNP C607/4, C645-C646, C688-C690, C691A-C694) and the zinc metal or spelter industry (e.g. HNP C565/IV/75, C566/3, C589/7, C590/IV/126, C607/3; other material re the spelter industry is in the HNP 1982 and 1995/1996 accessions);
- material relating to roads and bridges, canals (e.g. some canal maps, ca.1795-1820, in HNP C596/bundle 204/1 and C599), railways (especially HNP C596; also HNP C565) and water supplies (e.g. HNP C572-574 and C584).
Correspondence and papers relating to Cumberland parliamentary elections
- This chiefly concerns the 1880 East Cumberland election, in which George James Howard, subsequently 9th Earl of Carlisle, was the defeated Liberal candidate (HNP C586).
Some material re Brampton, Cumberland local administration
- This includes poor law papers, ca. 1879-1916 (HNP C614/3) and papers re rural district council business, 1894-1915 (HNP C613/13).
- HNP C585: bundle of letters (not yet arranged or listed) written by George James Howard and Rosalind Howard (from 1889 Earl and Countess of Carlisle), 1878-1912, and also including some letters from other correspondents (summarily listed), ca.1879-1909. Note that most of the correspondence and papers of George James Howard and Rosalind Howard is held at Castle Howard, Yorkshire with the main series of Howard personal and political papers.