Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939, founder of psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud, son of Jacob Freud (1815-1896), wool merchant, and Amalie Nathansohn (1835-1931), was born on 6 May 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia. Both parents and Freud were Jewish. The family moved to Vienna, Austria, in 1860, where Freud stayed for most of his life. He began his medical studies at Vienna University in 1873 and became famous for founding the theory of psychoanalysis, publishing a number of works throughout his life. Arguably the most famous of these works is The Interpretation of Dreams, (1899). Freud married Martha Bernays (1861-1951) on 13 September 1886, and they went on to have 6 children: Mathilde, Jean-Martin [Martin], Oliver, Ernst, Sophie, and Anna.
He arrived in London as a refugee from the threat of Nazi persecution on 6 June 1938, where he spent the rest of his life. He died from a long-term struggle against cancer of the jaw on 23 September 1939.
Freud, Samuel, 1860-1945, merchant
Samuel [known as Sam] Freud, was born on 28 June 1860 at Broughton, Manchester, to Emanuel Freud (1833-1914) and Marie Kokach (1835/6-1923). Emanuel Freud was Sigmund Freud's half-brother, Jacob Freud's son from an earlier marriage to Sally Kanner (1831/32-1852).
During much of the time period the collection covers, Sam lived with his mother and sisters, Pauline (1856-1944) and Bertha (1859-1940) at 61 Bloom Street, Manchester. The family originally lived in Freiberg, Moravia, but must have moved to Manchester c.1859-60, as Sam was the first child of the family to be born there. Sam also had four other siblings: Johann (1855-?), Matilda (1862-1868), Emily (1865-1868) and Henrietta (12-31 Aug 1866).
It is unclear from the correspondence in which specific trade Sam held his business, but it is possible that he took over his father's business as a cloth merchant.
Freud, Anna, 1895-1982, psychoanalyst, daughter of Sigmund Freud
Anna Freud was born on 3 December 1895 in Vienna, Austria. She made a name for herself working in psychoanalysis, and acted as her father's international ambassador during his later years of illness. She died in London in 1982.
Hartwig, Pauline, 1873-1951, née Freud
Pauline Maria Freud was born on 21 October 1873 in Manchester to Philipp Freud (1834-1911), merchant, and Matilda Bloome (1839-1925). She married Frederick Oswald Hartwig, a glass manufacturer, in 1921. She died in ?Bucklow, on 23 July 1951.
Freud, Morris Herbert Walter, (1876-1938), book-keeper
Morris Freud was born on 2 April 1876 in Manchester to Philipp Freud (1834-1911), merchant, and Matilda Bloome (1839-1925). He died in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, on 21 November 1938.
Siblings of Sigmund Freud:
- Freud, Emanuel, (1833-1914)
- Married: Marie Kokach. Children: Johann, Pauline, Bertha, Samuel [Sam], Matilda, Emily, Henrietta.
- Freud, Philipp, (1835-1911)
- Married: Matilda Bloome [Bloomah]. Children: Pauline Mary [Poppy], and Morris.
- Freud, Julius, (1857-1858)
- Bernays, Anna (1858-1955), née Freud
- Married: Eli Bernays [brother of Martha Bernays]. Children: Lucy, Judith, Edward, Hella, and Martha.
- The family were based in New York, USA.
- Graf, Regina Deborah (1860-1942), née Freud, known as Rosa
- Married: Heinrich Graf. Children: Hermann Adolf, Caecilie [Mausi].
- Moritz-Freud, Maria (1861-1942), née Freud, known as Mitzi
- Married: Moritz Freud [cousin]. Children: Margarethe, Lilly Marlé-Freud, Martha Gertrude, and Theodor [Teddy].
- Freud, Esther Adolfine (1862-1943), known as Dolphi
- Winternitz, Pauline Regine (1864-1942), née Freud, known as Pauli
- Married: Valentin Winternitz. Children: Rose Beatrice [Rosi]
- Freud, Alexander Gotthold Efraim (1866-1943)
- Married: Sophie Sabine Schreiber. Children: Harry.
Children of Sigmund Freud:
- Hollitscher, Mathilde (1887-1978), née Freud
- Married: Robert Hollitscher
- Freud, Jean-Martin (1889-1967), known as Martin
- Married: Ernestine Drucker [Esti]. Children: Anton, Sophie.
- Freud, Oliver (1891-1969)
- Married: Henny Fuchs. Children: Eva.
- Freud, Ernst (1892-1970)
- Married: Lucie Brasch. Children: Stephan, Lucian, Clement.
- Halberstadt, Sophie (1893-1920), née Freud
- Married: Max Halberstadt. Children: Ernst, Heinz.
- The family lived in Hamburg, Germany.
- Freud, Anna (1895-1982)